Other definitions of crime have rested on more pragmatic considerations, such as social harm. Harms-based definitions suggest that crime is any behavior that infringes upon basic human rights or otherwise produces individual or social harm. This definition suggests that a crime is any behavior that is legislatively prohibited and committed without defense or justification.
When these three elements converge—an act or behavior, a statement by a legislature that these behaviors are unacceptable, and the absence of a legally valid reason for committing the act— then regardless of social harm, moral judgments, or relative power, a person has committed a crime.
One important caveat in any discussion of crime is that virtually everything people do in modern industrial and postindustrial societies is regulated by law, and most of it has nothing to do with the criminal law or crime. Contracts we enter into, nutrition labels on foods, levels of vehicle emissions, the amount of taxes we are required to pay, the methods we use in voting, the height of the buildings in which we work, and nearly everything else we do and experience in our day-to-day lives are regulated by a complex web of laws that have nothing to do with criminal law.
Nonetheless, because of the personal nature of many crimes, the criminal law tends to be the most visible category of law in modern societies. For the purposes of data collection and comparison, crime data is usually divided into two broad categories: Personal crimes include crimes of violence such as murder and robbery as well as any other criminal offenses that involve direct contact between a perpetrator and a victim, such as rape, aggravated assault, and battery.
Property crimes are those in which personal property is the object of the offense and there is no force or threat of force used against the person to whom the property rightfully belongs. Examples of property crimes include larceny-theft, burglary, motor-vehicle theft, and arson. Property crimes occur with far greater frequency than personal crimes, making up between 85 and 90 percent of all crimes reported to U.
Expressed differently, according to official data, every Beyond the distinction between personal and property crimes, other more detailed differentiations among criminal behaviors exist. Other types not discussed in this article include hate crime, environmental crime, technological crime, and political crime. There are four major violent crimes tracked by both the Federal Bureau of Investigation and most international policing agencies: Many countries also recognize statutory rape—sexual intercourse with a person usually female under the legal age of consent which varies from country to country.
Robbery involves taking personal property from the possession of another against his or her will by the use or threat of force. The threat of violence is what distinguishes robbery from the lesser offense of theft.
Aggravated assault refers to an unlawful attack by one person on another for the purpose of inflicting severe bodily injury. Among Western industrialized nations, the United States long has been considered a particularly violent and crime-ridden society.
This survey notwithstanding, the United States continues to have rates of murder and other serious violent crimes that vastly exceed those of other high-income nations. The term white-collar crime was coined by Edwin Sutherland, former president of the American Sociological Association. In his presidential address Sutherland discussed persons of the upper socioeconomic class whose criminal behavior is dealt with much less severely than that of the lower socioeconomic classes Sutherland These more recent definitions of white-collar crime usually contain some or all of the following elements: Criminologists have also begun to recognize corporate crime as a distinct form of white-collar crime, in which the immediate benefits of the criminal behavior go to a corporation rather than to any particular individual.
Similarly, about 16, people are murdered each year in the United States, but far more people die as the result of white-collar criminal activities. For example, more than , people die each year in the United States because of neglect of worker-safety requirements, on-the-job accidents, and exposure to hazardous materials in the workplace Reiman Organized crime refers to criminal enterprises that specialize in vice crimes such as gambling, prostitution, drug operations, and other correlated illegal activities, including money laundering and racketeering.
Below you will find an example essay written on one of the topics from that list. The self-control theory of crime is a criminological theory which focuses on individual self-control as a factor behind the commitment of crimes.
However, there are correlations between levels of self-control and the impulse for criminal conduct. Originally this theory was developed by two criminologists but today has been subject to theoretical debate and other empirical literature which has expounded upon the ideas purported in this theory and claimed it to be limited in terms of understanding criminal behavior.
Originally the theory of self-control was an idea stemming from bonding theory. This theory of self-control was based upon the observation of the behavior and age. By this theory had gained popularity because of its empirical observations.
The two theorists behind this idea recorded that self-control was an important factor behind people who commit crimes. Additionally, criminal acts might be short-sighted or opportunistic.
This theory shares similar attributes to the theory of ego depletion. One which focuses on the idea that people are more highly motivated to satisfy their immediate desires and pleasures around. This theory can be traced to aspects of self-control from a psychological perspective.
It was Freud who established the idea of self-control through the reality principle and the pleasure principle. Individuals have to learn the necessity of delaying gratification, something which they are taught by their parents as they grow up.
Part of the reason they must delay gratification was because of the obstacles they face in real life. Somebody wants to immediately have cash or a random purchase have to delay the gratification of that purchase based upon whether or not they have cash in their bank account. Does someone's upbringing correlate with his criminal inclinations? If so, is there a way to prevent these people from committing crimes?
In a world where the news can be viewed any time of day from a variety of media outlets, one has to question how crimes are reported to the public. To do a research paper on this, there are a variety of focuses you can take in your approach.
You could examine if there is a bias toward certain races or social classes. Does the media's reporting have an effect on creating fair trials? Study significant cases that had a lot of media coverage and then compare the results with similar cases that had less media involvement. How have criminology television shows and movies, as well as reality shows devoted to real life crimes and court cases, blurred the line between reality and entertainment?
If this is something that you find interesting, you may want to research the effect of these portrayals on professional criminologists or society as a whole. Do jurors have unrealistic expectations of what a trial entails and what evidence will be presented? Alexis Skye has been writing professionally since The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language.
These are criminology research paper topics on the self-control theory of crime. With them you will discover the full multitude of ways you can take your research paper.
10 Great Criminology Topics for Research Papers Criminology deals with the causes, nature, consequences, and control of criminal behavior. When you have to write a research paper on the topic, you will need to find one that is relevant.
Research within librarian-selected research topics on Criminology and Crime from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more. The study of criminology focuses on the behavior of criminals and the nature and causes of crime. Because of this, there are a wide variety of angles that may interest you when choosing a focus for a research paper. There are a number of psychological, social and legal issues you may want to.
Criminology Research Paper Topics Age and Crime. Aggression and Crime. Biological Theory. Campus Crime. Capital Punishment. Child Abuse. Citation and Content Analysis. Citizenship and Crime. Classical Criminology. Community Corrections. Convict Criminology. Crime Classification Systems: NCVS, NIBRS, and UCR. Crime . The list of nearly key criminal justice research topics for essays and research papers comprising traditional criminology and modern interdisciplinary outgrowths.