This can be used for subjects as diverse as an analysis of a speech by the prime minister and the popularity of baby names over time. While it has deep roots in academia, data visualization has begun to emerge on content sites as a way to handle the masses of data that are being made public, often by government. Dateline - A line at the beginning of a story stating the date and the location. Deadline - The time at which an editor requests a journalists to finish an assignment.
Death-knock - Calling at the house of a bereaved relative or friend when reporting on the death. Also known as door-stepping. Deck - Part of the headline which summarises the story. Also known as deck copy or bank. Defamation - Information that is written by one person which damages another person's reputation.
Allows exciting things to happen when you move your mouse over words. Digg - A community-powered internet link recommendation system. Furl offers a similar service. Direct quote - The exact reproduction of a verbatim quote in quotemarks and correctly attributed.
Digital television - TV transmitted in binary format, producing good picture quality. Direct marketing - Sending advertising material directly to potential customers either by post, fax, email or information by telephone. Django — A web framework that is popular among news and information sites, in part due to its origin at Lawrence Journal-World in Kansas.
It is written in Python, a sophisticated dynamic language. Major projects built in Django include Disqus, Everyblock. News applications teams, including those at the Chicago Tribune and Los Angeles Times, use the framework to present large data sets online in easily accessible ways.
Document-oriented database — An increasingly popular type of database. In contrast to relational databases, which rigidly require information to be stored in pre-defined tables, document-oriented databases are more free-flowing and flexible. This is important when you don't know what is going to be thrown at you.
Document-oriented databases retrieve information more quickly, but store it less efficiently. The same document-oriented database might let you store the information for an article headline, byline, data, content, miscellaneous or for a photo file, photographer, date, cutline.
Dowdification - Deliberate omission of a term or terms to change the meaning of a quote. Refers to journalist Maureen Dowd. Download - Copying a file from a website to your own computer. Draft - The first version of an article before editing and submission to the editor.
Dropdown menus - Name given to website menus that allow users to select from a list of options that drop down in a vertical menu. Drupal — A popular content management system known for a vibrant open-source community that creates diverse and robust extensions. Drupal is very powerful, but it is somewhat difficult to use for simple tasks when compared to WordPress.
Drupal provides options to create a static website, a multi-user blog, an Internet forum or a community website for user-generated content. EC2 — A computing power rental system by Amazon that has become popular among technology companies because it is much cheaper than maintaining your own computer servers.
Users can host their applications on EC2 and pay depending on usage. EC2 is an example of cloud computing. Editor - Someone who prepares material for print or broadcast. Embed — A term meaning to place a specific piece of content from one web page inside of another one. This is a common way for video content to be spread around the Internet and is increasingly being used for interactive components. Encryption - TV signals encoded so only paying subscribers can watch.
Endnote - Text written at the end of an article stating the authors credentials. Exclusivity - When an advert appears exclusively on a page, rather than being in rotation with other ads. Ezine - Specialised online magazines. Fisk - Detailed word-by-word analysis and critique of an article.
Refers to journalist Robert Fisk. Flash - A program used to display design-heavy, animated content. Flash - 1 Short news story on a new event. The language used, ActionScript, is owned by Adobe; this contrasts with many other popular programming languages that are open source.
Creators must use Adobe's Creative Suite products and web surfers must install a Flash plug-in for their browser. Many claim that Flash players are unstable and inefficient, slowing down web pages and crashing operating systems. Apple has not allowed Adobe to create a Flash player for the iPhone operating system, which has created a feud between the two companies. HTML5 is emerging as an open alternative to Flash. Despite a relatively modest user base at the beginning, Foursquare quickly attracted a lot of attention for its potential for marketing and customer brand loyalty.
Freelancer - Someone that works alone, usually on a contract-to-contract basis. Freesheet - A publication that is free to consumers and generates its revenue from advertising. Free-to-air - TV service received without having to decode or pay. A method of moving files, usually used to transfer files from your computer to a web server.
FYI - An abbreviation meaning for your information. Geotag — A piece of information that goes with content and contains geographically based information.
Commonly used on photo sites such as Flickr or in conjunction with user-generated content, to show where a photo, video or article came from.
There has been some discussion of its increasing relevance with geographically connected social networking sites, such as Foursquare. Twitter has implemented geotagging, and Facebook has announced plans to do so. GIF - A type of picture file, often used for images that include text. Goat-choker - An article of inordinate and suffocating length, produced to gratify the vanity of the author and the aspirations of the publication. Grip - A person that looks after the equipment required to make a TV camera move.
Grip-and-grin - A photograph of no inherent interest in which a notable and an obscure person shake hands at an occasion of supposed significance. Geotagging - Adding metadata to an image, video, RSS feed, web page etc, which identifies the geographical location relating to the content.
Hits - Number of downloads of every element of a web page, rather than the page as a whole. A page of 20 images, text boxes, logos and menus will count as 20 hits, so hits are therefore not regarded as a reliable measurement of web traffic. House style - A publication's guide to style, spelling and use of grammar, designed to help journalists write and present in a consistent way for their target audience.
The Economist publishes a style guide as does The Guardian. Often a promotional ad for the publication. Basic programming code used for the design and display of web pages. HTML5 — The upcoming, powerful standard of Hypertext Markup Language, which has added advanced interactive features, such as allowing video to be embedded on a web page.
It is gaining in popularity compared to proprietary standards, like Adobe Flash, because it is an open standard and does not require third-party plugins. Using HTML5 will allow web pages to work more like desktop applications. The latest releases of most browsers support HTML5 to varying degrees. Hyperlink - A link that redirects the user to another web page.
Impressions - The number of times an advertising banner was viewed during a campaign. The internet - The international network of interconnected computers. Intranet - A private computer network inside a company or organisation for internal use only. Inventory - The number of advertisement spaces for sale on a web site at a given time.
Journalist - Someone who writes, researches and reports news, or works on the production of a publication. Sometimes shortened to journo, hack or scribe. Common type of picture file used on the web. Released in , jQuery quickly gained widespread adoption because of its efficiency and elegance.
Jumpline - A line indicating a continuation, or jump, of an article on a subsequent page. Though readership surveys for generations have indicated that readers despise jumps and generally do not follow them, it does not suit newspapers to do otherwise. Kerning - Adjustment of horizontal space between two written characters. Kicker - The first sentence or first few words of a story's lead, set in a font size larger than the body text of the story.
Kill fee - A reduced fee paid to a journalist for a story that is not used. Kittyblog - A pointless and boring weblog, possibly about the owner's cat. LAMP — An acronym referring to a bundle of free open-source Web technologies that have become incredibly popular as a method for building websites. Leading questions - A question that contains the predicted answer within the question.
Legacy media — An umbrella term to describe the centralised media institutions that were dominant during the second half of the 20th century, including — but not limited to — television, radio, newspapers and magazines, all which generally had a uni-directional distribution model.
Libel - A case for defamation. Defendent would need to show claims were true, fair comment or an accurate record of parliamentary or court proceedings. Library — In the context of programming, this contains code that can be accessed for software and Web development, enabling one to perform common tasks without writing new code every time.
Many libraries are freely shared. Licence fee - BBC funding system. Good link journalism should briefly summarise the content of the article it is linking to, name the source and author and, of course, link directly to it. Any direct reproduction of text should be kept to an absolute minimum, appear in quotes, and be clearly attributed to its source.
The journalist should also endeavour wherever possible to find the original source of an article, rather than link to someone else's later version of it.
Also bear in mind that your own reputation will be judged on the quality of the articles you link to; if you have any interest or connection with the story, publication or author, then declare it. Linotype - A machine for the mechanical setting of type, the brainchild of Ottmar Merganthaler of Baltimore, to whom all praise be given. The Linotype operator used hot metal, melted lead, to create slugs of type by manipulating a keyboard. Lobster shift - Working in the hours after a publication has gone to print.
Also known as dog watch. Location-based services — A service, usually in a mobile Web or mobile device application, that uses your location in order to perform a certain task, such as finding nearby restaurants, giving you directions, or locating your friends. Foursquare and Gowalla are location-based services. Long-lead magazines - Glossy magazines, quarterlies and journals that typically commission and accept work months in advance of publication.
Long tail - The effect of publishing content online and keeping it available in an archive. Unlike in a newspaper, old stories will continue to receive traffic long after publication date, hence the long tail. Mashup — A combination of data from multiple sources, usually through the use of APIs.
An example of a mashup would be an app that shows the locations of all the movie theaters in a particular town on a Google map. It is mashing up one data source the addresses of movie theaters with another data source the geographic location of those addresses on a map.
Mash up, mashup, or mash-up - a website or web application that seamlessly combines content from more than one source into an integrated experience. Masthead - Main title section and name at the front of a publication. Media Kit - Practical information available to potential advertisers regarding costs etc. Metadata - Meta data, or sometimes metainformation, is data about data, of any sort, in any media. Microblogging - Variant of traditional blogging in which users write brief text messages over the web.
Popularized by web site Twitter, which limits users to character updates. Mobile — An umbrella term in technology that was long synonymous with cellular phones but has since grown to encompass tablet computing the iPad and even netbooks.
In retrospect, an early mobile technology was the pager. Mobile technology usually demands a different set of standards — design and otherwise — than desktop computers, and has opened up an entirely new area for geo-aware applications. Moblogging - Where individuals contribute to a blog using images or text sent from a mobile phone. A file format used for digital video. MPU - Known as a Messaging Plus Unit, a large square web advert usually in a central position below or inline with editorial.
Typically around by pixels in size. Multimedia - Term used to describe a range of different delivery formats such as video, audio, text and images, often presented simultaneously on the internet. Multiplex - Single digital terrestrial TV transmission comprising of several channels.
It is popular because it is a free and flexible alternative to expensive systems like Oracle. Netiquette - Online etiquette, eg.
Networked journalism - Another term to describe participatory journalism or citizen journalism. Newsreader - Software that helps receive and read RSS blog and news feeds. Nut graf - Paragraph containing the essential elements of a story. OAuth — A new method that allows users to share information stored on one site with another site. For example, some web-based Twitter clients will use OAuth to connect to your account, instead of requiring you to provide your password directly to that third-party site.
It is similar to Facebook Connect. This allows sites to validate users' identities without having full access to their personal accounts. Ofcom - Broadcasting industry regulator. Off the floor - When a page has been completed and removed from the composing room cf. When an entire edition is off the floor, it is said to have been put to bed. Off the record - Information that must not be disclosed.
On spec - Article that is written 'just in-case', but it will only be used if needed. Ontology — A classification system with nodes or entities, that allows non-hierarchical relationships, in contrast to a taxonomy, which is hierarchical. Taxonomies and ontologies are important in content to help related articles or topics pages.
Op-ed - A feature, usually by a prominent journalist, presenting an opinionated story. Open ID — An open standard that lets users log in to multiple web sites using the same identity through a third party. While Open ID has seen adoption among technical communities, its authentication method is not particularly intuitive, and it has not gained wide consumer acceptance. Open source software - Software with openly available code to allow developers or others to modify it.
Operating system — A basic layer of software that controls computer hardware, allowing other applications to be built on it. The most popular operating systems today for desktop computers are the various versions of Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and the open-source Linux.
Smart phones also have operating systems. Orphan - First line of a paragraph appearing on the last line of a column of text. Despite rave reviews, the product is generally acknowledged to have come out too late to gain meaningful traction against the iPhone or Google's Android operating system.
HP recently announced that it would acquire Palm, which was once the leading smart phone company. PACT - Industry body representing independent cinema and tv producers. Pasteup - The assemblage of pages by pasting type onto page mockups, which are then photographed to be made into metal plates for the printing press.
Pay-per-view - A single programme that the viewer has to pay for. A hand-held computer combining a phone, organiser and web client. PDF - Portable Document Format — a standard file format that allows web publishers to post documents viewable by any user who installs a copy of the free Acrobat Reader.
Peer-to-peer P2P — A network architecture in which users share resources on their own computers directly with others. Often used to speed up videos and large multimedia pieces that can take a long time to download. Napster was an early example of a popular use of peer-to-peer architecture, although it was not fully peer-to-peer. Today, Skype and BitTorrent are based on peer-to-peer technologies.
Perl — A dynamic language that is often used to phrase and sort information because of its powerful abilities in manipulating text. Perl can be used to pull large quantities of data down from websites and standardise and replace information in batch. Perl was more popular in past years, especially in the computer-assisted reporting community, but it has been overtaken in popularity by languages such as Python and Ruby.
Perl still has an active development community and is noted for the scope of its freely available libraries, which simplify development. Photoblogging - Contributing photos to a blog. Photoshop - noun Computer program used to edit photographs. It is criticized as being slow because it generates web pages on request.
However, Facebook recently released its internally developed version of HipHop for PHP, which is designed to make the language dramatically more efficient. The pica pole is pounded against a metal surface in the ritual of banging out an employee leaving the premises for the last time. Pixel - An on-screen measurement. Most monitors display around pixels wide by pixels high. Platform — In the technology world, platform refers to the hardware or software that other applications are built upon.
Computing platforms include Windows PC and Macintosh. Podcasts - MP3 audio recordings that can automatically download to a user's computer as soon as they are published online.
Pop-up - A web advert that pops up on screen. These are commonly blocked with a pop-up blocker. Posterous — A blogging and publishing platform to which users can submit via e-mail. It is a for-profit company based in San Francisco that came out of the YCombinator seed start-up program.
PostgreSQL is preferred by some in the technology community for its ability to operate as a spatial database, using PostGIS extensions. This enables developers to create applications that sort information based on geography, which can mean sorting by whether various places are within a certain county or pointing out the places that are geographically closest to the user. Industry body representing UK magazine publishers.
Portal - A busy site often used as a starting point online through services such as messaging, news and searches. Programming language — A special type of language used to unambiguously instruct a computer how to perform tasks. Programming languages are used by software developers to create applications, including those for the web, for mobile phones, and for desktop operating systems.
Puff piece - A news story with editorialised, complimentary statements. PTC - Periodicals Training Council - The lead body for best practice in training and development for the magazine and business media sector. Primary accreditation body for magazine journalism courses. Pulitzer Prize - American journalism awards.
There are fourteen prizes for journalism. The prizes have been awarded by Columbia University since Pulitzer-Prize-winner - An article of surpassing artistry or investigative virtuosity, usually of considerable length, written for Pulitzer jurors rather than the readership of the publication, despite the unlikelihood that the former group will have read it in its entirety before bestowing the laurels. Pull-out quote - Selected quote from a story highlighted next to the main text.
Often used in interviews. Python — A sophisticated computer language that is commonly used for Internet applications. Designed to be a very readable language, it is named after Monty Python. It first appeared in and was originally created by Guido van Rossum, a Dutch computer programmer who now works at Google.
Python files generally end in. QuarkXPress - Desktop publishing program. Radio spectrum - Total capacity of radio frequencies that can be received. Relational database — A piece of software that stores data in a series of tables, with relationships defined between them.
A news story might have columns for a headline, date, text and author, where author points to another table containing the author's first name, last name and email address. Information must be structured, but this allows for powerful queries. Most modern websites use some kind of relational database to store content. Redletter - Exclusive, breaking news coverage of a major news event, printed in red type.
Reporters without borders - An organisation founded in that fights for press freedom around the world. Revision - A re-written or improved story, often with additional quotes or facts. Rim editor - A copy editor, a nonentity.
Ruby — An increasingly popular programming language known for being powerful yet easy to write with. The power of Ruby on Rails, which was developed by the Chicago-based firm 37 Signals, comes from how quickly it can be used to create a basic website. SaaS Software as a Service — A pricing strategy and business model, where companies build a software solution, usually business-to-business, and charge a fixed monthly rate to access it on the Internet.
It is a type of cloud computing. Sacred cow - News or promotional material which a publisher or editor demands be published, often for personal reasons. Satellite television - TV received through a satellite dish. Scoop - An exclusive or first-published story.
Scoopt - the world's first citizen journalism photograph agency owned by Getty Images. It allows people to upload files and others to download in various formats. Scripting language — A programming language designed to be easy to use for everyday or administrative tasks.
It may involve trade-offs such as sacrificing some performance for ease of programming. Search box - A tool that allows users to enter a word or phrase to search a database. Sell - Short sentence promoting an article, often pulling out a quote or a interesting sentence.
See also Pull-out quote. SEO can also refer to individuals and companies that offer to provide search engine optimization for websites. SEM Search Engine Marketing — A type of marketing that involves raising a company or product's visibility in search engines by paying to have it appear in search results for a given word.
Semantic web — A vision of the web that is almost entirely machine readable, in which documents are published in languages that are designed specifically for data.
It was first articulated by Tim Berners-Lee in While there has been progress toward this front, many say this vision remains largely unrealized. Server-sid — Referring to when network software runs in a central location, the server, rather than on the user's computer, often known as the client. Also see client side. Serif and Sans serif - Plain font type with or without sans lines perpendicular to the ends of characters.
Server - A computer that hosts the pages of a web site. Shockwave - Software that allows the user to play multimedia animations; published by Macromedia.
Sinatra - A lightweight framework written in Ruby that can be used to set up web services, APIs and small sites at lightning speed. Skype - Popular free internet telephony tool sometimes used to produce Skypecasts , or broadcast conference calls. Skyscraper - A vertical banner advert, usually at one side of a web page and 60 x pixels in size.
Slot editor - On a copy desk, the copy editor who checks and corrects the copy of other copy editors before approving it for publication. The term arises from the obsolete furniture of the newsroom, where once a horseshoe-shaped desk enabled the slot editor to hand out paper copy to the copy editors on the rim, the outside of the horseshoe.
Slug - A line of type set in metal on a Linotype machine. Also the one-word working title of an article as it moves through production. Social bookmarking - A service that allows users to store interesting website addresses publicly on a web page and lets users network and pool recommendations.
Social graph — A mapping of the connections between people and the things they care about that could provide useful insights. The term originally promoted by Facebook and is now gaining broader usage. Social media — A broad term referring to the wide swath of content creation and consumption that is enabled by the many-to-many distributed infrastructure of the Internet.
Unlike legacy media, where the audience is usually on the receiving end of content creation, social media generally allows three stages of interaction with content: Social media is incredibly broad and refers to blogging, wikis, video-sharing sites like YouTube, photo-sharing sites like Flickr and social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. Spadia - An annoying flap of advertising copy that wraps around a portion of the front page of a section, preventing the reader from seeing the full page.
Spider - Also known as a crawler or ant, a program that uses hyperlinks to make methodical searches of the web to provide information about pages for search engines.
Standfirst - Line of text after the headline that gives more information about the article. The hardest word for a copy editor to use. Sticky content - Content that encourages users to stay on one site for as long as possible. Strapline - Similar to a subhead or standfirst, but used more as a marketing term. Streaming - Watching or listening to video or audio in real time, rather than downloading files. Structured thesaurus — A group of preferred terms created for editorial use to normalise and more effectively classify content.
IFB or Interrupt Feedback — The earpiece through which a director or producer instructs a correspondent in the field or anchor in the studio.
The producer interrupts whatever feedback the reporter is getting in the earpiece. Jump Cut — An edit in a news package that interrupts continuity. Lead — The key information of the story, usually presented at the beginning of the segment.
Leading Questions — Questions intended to steer an interviewee in a particular direction. Lip Flap — Video of somebody talking, with the audio portion muted. Happens when using video of people being interviewed as B-roll. Miscue — An error in which footage or audio is played before its intended time, resulting in overlapping elements in the broadcast. It may also use interview sound bites. Often used to convey the mood or atmosphere at a scene or an event. NAT Sound — Natural sound on video that the microphone picks up.
Including sound of a rally with video of a rally. News Envelope — A summary segment in which the main headlines are broadcast in brief around a minute or less. May have local or national sponsorship.
Used for transition between voiceovers or soundbites, or when there is no video to talk over. Outcue — The final three or four words of a news package, included in scripts to signal to the anchor and control room staff when the package is about to end so they can cue the next element in the program.
Package sometimes Wrap — A pre-recorded, pre-produced news story, usually by a reporter, with track, sound, B-roll, and possibly a stand-up. POV or Point-of-View Shot — B-roll shot from the perspective of the subject, illustrating what the subject sees or saw at a given moment.
Production Element — Any piece of audio which is intended for use within the final mix, i. Promo — Promotional announcement.
In effect, an advertisement for a program a station or channel is carrying. Pronouncer — Phonetic spelling of word in story, placed in copy behind correctly spelled word.
Reader — A script read entirely by the anchor on camera, without sound bites or video. Remote — A live shot from the field, where a satellite truck is required to transmit the image. Rundown — An electronic or paper form created by the line producer of a news broadcast.
Gives specific details of every element in a newscast, including the order of stories, video, audio, and graphic elements and timing for each. Audio broadcast from the scene of a breaking news story, or shortly in the wake of recent events. Gives specific details of every element in a newscast, including the order of stories, video, audio and graphic elements and timing for each. Sidebar — A small story, graphic, or chart accompanying a bigger story on the same topic. Only for newsroom use; not meant for broadcast.
Usually an edited portion of a larger statement. Studio in the — A story updating or supplying additional details about an event that has been previously covered. Still — A still image as opposed to a moving video image. Stills can be used to illustrate a story and can sometimes be displayed over track or interview clips instead of video footage.
Tight on — A direction to the camera crew to zoom in on a subject so that they fill the shot e. Time Code — The time signature on a camera or recording device—actual time a story is being shot on a hour basis, i. Includes hours, minutes, seconds, and video frames. Toss — When an anchor or reporter turns over a portion of the show to another anchor or reporter.
Also used to refer to any shot including two people; two anchors at a single news desk, for instance. Video Journalist or VJ — A reporter who shoots his or her own video and may even edit it. Know of any other terms which should be included here? Any that are still causing confusion and warrant further explanation? Degree Programs at the Los Angeles Campus: A-Roll — The main portion of audio video footage in a news story.
Aston — An increasingly uncommon term for the strap line, more popularly known in broadcast journalism as the lower third see below Attribution — The written phrase that identifies the source of a fact, opinion, or quote in a story. Bridge — An audio track linking between two news items.
Donut — A produced news package with a live shot, with a live intro, and tag. Downcut — Chopping off the end of a story or sound bite.
crony journalism Reporting that ignores or treats lightly negative news about friends of a reporter. crop To cut or mask the unwanted portions, usually of a Broadcasting Terms close-up Shot of the face of the subject that dominated .
This accessible and authoritative A–Z covers the wide range of terms likely to be encountered by students of journalism. It offers a broad, accessible point of reference on an ever-topical and constantly changing field that affects everyone's knowledge and perception of the world.
Citizen journalism - Term used to describe the reporting of news events by members of the public most commonly on blogs and social networking websites. Other terms include participatory journalism and networked journalism though it should not be confused with civic journalism, which is practiced by professional journalists. Journalism, like any profession, has its own language and specialist words which practitioners need to know. The following glossary contains more than definitions of terms about journalism and the media - including new media - making it probably the biggest, most extensive journalism and media glossary available free online.
Start studying Journalism Glossary. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The amount of technical jargon in the world of journalism—often even for very simple concepts—is notorious, and even if you’ve spent a few years at broadcast journalism school there will still be terms that’ll inevitably mystify you when starting your career.