There were very few or no political, social, economic and other upheavals. She was primarily an agricultural country as her land was fertile. Agricultural produce was sufficient to feed the hungry mouths. There were mountains and rivers which provided natural security. China also had an official philosophy Confucianism. Again, she was free from outside political interferences and this was another cause of internal stability. From the standpoint of modern civilization China was definitely a backward country, but her civilization was quite rich.
In the nineteenth century China was confronted with changes and some problems. She came under the administration of the Manchu Dynasty. The rulers imposed their rules and regulations upon the self-sufficient society of China. The self-sufficient and peaceful China was shattered.
Foreigners were lured at the natural wealth and resources of China and they began to plunder the resources.
People of China were not prepared to resist foreign invasion and naturally they fell into the grip of foreign powers. Nationalist feeling was not sufficient to resist the foreign invasion. Several incidents took place that placed China on the forefront of world incidents and international politics. One such incident was the Opium War that took place in Not Japan alone, several Western powers were quite eager to plunder the resources of China.
At this time the time old internal stability of China was faced with several problems. Neither the people nor the ruler had the ability to fight away. China was again at the crossroads. There emerged a conflict between Western culture which had already started its invasion into Chinese society and the old or traditional culture and institutions of China. There was a conflict between the two which could not be easily solved. The Chinese society was divided into two sections.
One strongly supported the Western culture and the other was in favour of retention of Chinese culture and civilisation. The solution was not easy and this created problems for all. Many educated men of China wanted to introduce the Western system of education and mode of living because they thought that the adoption of Western culture could modernize China.
They also wanted to import Western science and technology. When this conflict was at its zenith and the people of China were quite perplexed the lackeys of imperialist power had already started their business of plundering and exploitation. Various conflicts divided China and there was ill- feeling among various parts. The rulers were incapable of solving the conflict. The foreigners fully utilized this situation. We thus find that at the crossroads of Chinese society the tensions, torture inflicted upon Chinese peasantry and the internal situation considerably influenced by the political ideas of Mao.
From the sixties to the end of last century the term Maoism was very popular in the Communist World. Whatever it may be, we must try to know what is Maoism? The term is not properly clarified and explained.
Maoism was not the direct product of Marxism. Maoism is not the product of dogmas based on intellectual thought and principles. So we can say that the application of Marxism started with Lenin and it was subsequently followed by Mao.
In a restricted sense, Maoism can be called a continuation of Leninism, but it cannot be called a carbon copy of Leninism and not even Marxism. Maoism, in a sense, is a variation of communism, but it is not aberration from Marxism or communism.
Mao was not a philosopher comparable with Marx and Engels nor did he write volumes of works. Not with standing his interpreters have found out some traces of his philosophy in his limited works. After the formation of the Communist Party of China in he involved himself in revolutionary activities.
Another article On Contradiction was written in August These two articles constitute the central idea of his philosophy. He wrote these articles during the guerrilla warfare. In a classless society every person, as a member of society, joins in common effort with other members and enters into definite relation of production. In all class societies man lives as a member of a particular class. Every kind of thinking is stamped with the brand of a class.
In this analysis of Mao there is very little that can be branded as new. However, what he said has been endorsed by many Marxists. Man earns knowledge and experience from practice. Again knowledge guides man and here lies the importance of philosophy. Kolakowski observes that the Chinese fought against imperialists without proper knowledge and guidance.
The philosophical knowledge enabled them to act properly. Mao did not like book learning and his aversion to book learning is clear in this article. He says, the dialectical materialist theory of knowledge places practice in the primary position. Human knowledge cannot be separated from practice. Practice is always higher than knowledge.
The importance of knowledge does not depend on subjective idea but on the social practice. Naturally practice is more important than precept.
According to Mao, the Marxist philosophy of dialectical materialism has two outstanding features. One is the class nature or structure of society and the other is its practicality. A theory is always dependent on practice. Mao put both theory and practice under the same umbrella. One cannot be thought without the other. On Contradiction it has been said that Mao wrote this article to free the party from the dogmatic thinking that was prevalent at the beginning of the thirties of the last century.
The context of this article was the subject of a lecture delivered by him at the Anti-Japanese Military and Political College. He has said that the objective of the study of philosophy should be the eradication of dogmatist thinking. Explaining the nature and contents of materialist dialectics Mao makes the following comment: The metaphysical world outlook holds that in order to understand the development of a thing we should study it internally and in its relations with other things, in other words, the development of things should be seen as their internal and necessary self-movement while each thing in its movement is interrelated with and interacts on the things around it.
The reasons of development lie in the contradictions within the thing. Without contradiction a thing cannot develop. Whenever there is contradiction there is movement and movement means progress. Hence contradiction, movement, and progress are inter-related. Mao further observes that the question is one of kinds of different contradictions not of the presence of contradiction.
Everywhere there is contradiction and it is the vital cause of progress. Mao borrowed this concept from Engels. Later on Lenin developed the concept. Mao has also said that since there are different kinds of contradiction, these can be settled in different ways. For example, the contradiction between proletariat and bourgeoisie is resolved by the method of socialist revolution. Again, there is a type of contradiction between colonies and imperialist powers and this type of contradiction is generally resolved by national liberation movement.
Mao has talked about other types of contradiction and he has also suggested how these can be resolved. This indicates that he had deep and clear knowledge about contradiction. Mao further writes, The productive forces, practice and the economic base generally play the principal and decisive role; whoever denies this is not a materialist.
But it must be admitted that in certain conditions, such aspects as the relations of production, theory and the superstructure in turn manifest themselves in the principal and decisive role. When it is impossible for the productive forces to develop without a change in the relations of production, then the change in the relations of production plays the principal and decisive role.
The chief contribution of Mao in the field of political thought is his idea about revolution. But it is unfortunate that he has not systematically analyses the various aspects of revolution.
In On Contradiction he observes that a revolution is generally caused by the internal contradictions that exist in a society. The contradictions assume such nature that these cannot be reconciled by adopting the normal procedures. The result is that the contradictions continue to plague the society. The ills of the society can be removed by a revolution.
Revolution is the only way. Similarly, there are conflicts between imperialist powers and colonies. The conflicts can be settled by countrywide agitation which is revolution. In his concept of revolution Mao has invited the idea of contradiction. The only way is revolution. Lenin emphasized the irreconcilability of antagonism between classes and only a revolution can provide a solution.
The latter changes the society from top to bottom while the former changes it superficially. It can be called cosmetic surgery. Hence a proletarian revolution is necessary for an overall change of society.
Mao has also emphasized the importance of party in a revolution. The success of revolution primarily depends upon a well-organized party structure. Light industry- such as cotton-making and food processing-was neglected in favour of heavy industry.
The achievements of the first five year plan was published refer to table below and would seem to prove that the plan was successful, however the data could have been biased to keep the people of China happy. Many numbers of workers in the towns and cities meant more mouths to feed. The Agarian Reform Law of gave land to about million peasants, About half of whom were able to farm their land by themselves.
The rest, whose fields were too small or who did not own farming tools banded together in mutual-aid teams, sharing equipment and animals. The government recognised that farms that were too small could not be farmed efficiently, and therefore could not produce the amount of food needed for the five year plan.
Also they were afraid that the land owning peasants would become a new class in society, concerned with only making profits for themselves thereby going against the communist belief. Second five year plan in by Mao Zedong. Accessed September 15, We will write a custom essay sample on Second five year plan in by Mao Zedong specifically for you. Leave your email and we will send you an example after 24 hours If you contact us after hours, we'll get back to you in 24 hours or less.
Second five year plan in by Mao Zedong Essay. How to cite this page Choose cite format: Why did the Communists gain control of China in ? How about make it original? Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. What was the emperor seeking to achieve and how successful was he?
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Mao Zedong, who was an ambiguous peasant, passed away as one of historys greatest revolutionary figure of the world. Mao Zedong was one of the notable figures of the twentieth century who worked for the China day and night. Essay on The Ideology of Mao Zedong Words | 4 Pages. t A. Mao ZeDong is one of the greatest leaders in the history of New China. The influence of Mao’s theory is profound and lasting. He is a great thinker, poet, and a highly intelligent military strategist.
Mao Zedong Essay Mao Zedong was the son of a prosperous farmer from the Hunan Province in central China. After graduating from normal school he worked as a library assistant at National Beijing (Peking) University, where he came under the influence of intellectuals disillusioned with Western democracies and turned to Marxism, hailing the. Mao Zedong and Cultural Revolution Essay Zedong initiated a series of revolutions to change the way China ran, the final being the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution starting in .