Is the logic sound or faulty, and why? Why is the logic sound? Brainstorm your own ideas. Sure, you can use the arguments of others to back up what you want to say. However, you need to come up with your original spin on the topic to make it uniquely yours. Make lists of ideas. You can also try mind mapping. Walk in your neighborhood or local park and think about your topic.
Be prepared for ideas to come to you when you least expect them. Write your thesis statement. Look at the ideas that you generated. Choose one to three of your strongest ideas that support your topic. You should be able to support these ideas with evidence from your research. Write a thesis statement that summarizes the ideas that you plan to present.
Essentially, let the reader know where you're going, why, and how you will get there. A thesis statement should have a narrow focus include both your topic and what you plan to present.
For example, "Although Eli Whitney's cotton gin ushered in a new era of American prosperity, it also widened the gap in suffering for African-American slaves, who would soon be more in demand, and more exploited, than ever. Take the thoughts that you brainstormed and assemble them into an outline.
Write a topic sentence for your main ideas. Then, underneath, make bullet points and list your supporting evidence. Generally, you want three arguments or pieces of evidence to support each main idea. In , after the cotton gin had been adopted, slaves totaled about 1. Write the body of your essay. You do want to think about length here; don't write pages and pages if your teacher wants 5 paragraphs.
However, you should freewrite to let your thoughts reveal themselves. You can always make them more concise later. Don't use "I" statements such as "I think. Simply stating your argument with supporting facts makes you sound much more authoritative. Instead of writing, "I found Frum to have a conservative bias," tell the reader why your statement is true: It's tempting to allow your thoughts to wander or to add additional information that seems interesting.
However, this distracts from your purpose and undermines your essay. Make sure you stay on topic! Come up with a compelling title and introduction. Your title and introduction make people want to read your essay. If your teacher is the audience, then of course your teacher will read the whole piece. However, if you're submitting to an essay contest or writing an essay for college admissions, your title and introduction have to hook the reader if you want to meet your objectives.
Skip obvious expressions such as, "This essay is about, "The topic of this essay is" or "I will now show that". Try the inverted pyramid formula.
Start off with a very broad description of your topic and gradually narrow it down to your specific thesis statement.
Try to use no more than 3 to 5 sentences for short essays, and no more than 1 page for longer essays. Alternatively, you might open with an anecdote or quote that sets up the importance of your topic.
Every year, thousands of unwanted and abused animals end up in municipal shelters. Being caged in shelters not only causes animals to suffer but also drains local government budgets. Towns and cities could prevent both animal abuse and government waste by requiring prospective pet owners to go through mandatory education before allowing them to obtain a pet.
Although residents may initially resist the requirement, they will soon see that the benefits of mandatory pet owner education far outweigh the costs.
Summarize your points and suggest ways in which your conclusion can be thought of in a larger sense. Answer questions like, "What are the implications of your thesis statement being true? In a sense, you are repackaging your thesis statement in your concluding paragraph by helping the reader to remember the journey through your essay. Nail the last sentence. If your title and first paragraph make the reader want to read your essay, then your last sentence makes the reader remember you.
If a gymnast does a great balance beam routine but falls on the landing, then people forget the routine. Gymnasts need to "stick the landing," and so do essay writers. Wait a day or so and re-read your essay. Get your essay done a couple of days before the due date so that you have time to go back and revise it to make it polished.
Avoid turning in a first draft that you haven't double-checked for errors. Correct errors related to grammar, punctuation and spelling.
Consult a style book if you are unsure how to properly use quotation marks, colons, semicolons, apostrophes or commas. Avoid using exclamation points. Make sure you know how to use apostrophes correctly. Look for mistakes involving general punctuation. Check for run-on sentences , commas and periods inside quotation marks, as well as sparely-used dashes, colons, and semi-colons. Remove any repetitive or unnecessary words. Vary your language with the help of a thesaurus.
Also, consult a dictionary to make sure that you're using unfamiliar words correctly. At the same time, try to keep your language short, sweet, and to the point.
A thesaurus is a great tool, but don't just use big words to sound fancy. The best essays are clear, concise, and easily understood by a wide audience. Focus on writing killer verbs for sentences. Verbs communicate the action in a sentence and drive the action. A great verb can be the difference between a bland sentence and a beautiful one. Adjectives are great descriptive words, but when used indiscriminately, they can burden an essay and make it less readable.
Try to let the verbs and nouns do most of the heavy lifting before you focus on adjectives. Avoid colloquial informal writing. Do not use contractions or abbreviations e. Your essay should have a serious tone, even if it's written in a light or lyrical style. Analyze how your essay flows. Does each sentence lead smoothly to the next? Does each paragraph flow logically to the next? Although you can analyze your essay by reading through it, it's helpful to make a reverse outline, working from your essay to outline your thoughts.
When events happen in sequence: I first started to realize that I was in the minority when I was in middle school My realization was confirmed when I proceeded to high school. If sentences elaborate on each other: Plants need water to survive A plant's ability to absorb water depends on the nutrition of the soil. When an idea contrasts with another idea: Vegetarians argue that land is unnecessarily wasted by feeding animals to be eaten as food Opponents argue that land being used for grazing would not be able to be used to create any other kind of food.
If you're relaying a cause and effect relationship: I will be the first person in my family to graduate from college I am inspired to continue my family's progress through the generations. When connecting similar ideas: Organic food is thought to be better for the environment. Cut information that's not specifically related to your topic. You don't want your essay to ramble off-topic. Any information that doesn't directly or indirectly support your thesis should be cut out. Have someone read your paper aloud to you.
Your ears are sometimes better than your eyes at picking up mistakes in language. The essay should sound like it has a good flow and understandable words.
As an alternative, you can record yourself reading it aloud and play it back. Rewrite any problematic body passages. If needed, rearrange sentences and paragraphs into a different order. Make sure that both your conclusion and introduction match the changes that you make to the body. Compose your essay with a clear purpose. A persuasive essay is designed to sway the reader to adopt your point of view about a topic. This means it's important that your views are expressed in a clear, concise manner, which allows the reader to understand your argument.
These are good examples of persuasive essay topics you might write about: Whether governments should or should not fund embryonic stem cell research. Whether love is a virtue or a vice. Why Citizen Kane is the best movie of the 20th century. Why American citizens should be forced to vote. Write your essay as though you are conducting a debate. When you speak in a debate, you introduce your topic, list your evidence and draw a conclusion for the people who are listening.
A persuasive essay has a similar structure. Collect facts from good sources to justify your opinions. Support your argument with reasoned facts. A well-written essay is great, but a well-argued essay is undeniable. In addition to doing research, you can perform empirical experiments including taking surveys, doing interviews or conducting experiments.
Survey results or interviews could be great pieces of information to start your essay with. The first problem is that it is massively inefficient. I have never known a U. Yet, I believe it is the Congress that provides the stability to the United States. Now, as I have come to learn it, no child is born patient.
Patience is not a survival trait for infants. I understand that patience is an adult skill — not a personality trait. It is a skill meant to be learned during growing up. Take a seven-year-old boy. Put him with a group of adults who are displaying patience, and the kid will easily develop the mature skill of patience.
So I did not learn patience until I was about And I am still learning. When I see a traffic light that I can miss, that I can stop and wait through, I slow down.
I can look back on hundreds of foolish things I did between 8 and 46 because I was so impatient. Well, I suggest you consider your impatience is as an infantile trait.
I am not interested in blaming you. No one taught you how to be patient. Go take a course in patience. I think this is a very wise investment. You will need it. For them this is really unfamiliar territory. Now, I certainly believe in the Truth of God, etc. But I am fully aware that each of us has a different view on those Truths.
They point out that there is such a thing as WIGO, but no one knows what it is. Everyone just has their point of view of WIGO. If I want truth, I have to look into my heart or my soul. I will find my truth. If I speak to you, I share my version of that Truth — my truth.
Which version of the Truth is the right one? One way of looking at it is that each person thinks their version is the best at any given moment. At some level of detail there is always difference and disagreement. Now, I believe this is quite possible. I gave it a name because I found that once you start to note it, it is pretty easy to see — it almost seems objective. I define Master Talk as any sentence that implies a single truth. Slaves use another form of MasterTalk.
Amazingly I noticed that the purpose of Master Talk is not to communicate data. If the room is silent, I stay relaxed. I think MasterTalk is about maintaining stability in an inherently unstable relationship.
Certain words can clue you into MasterTalk: Click here for further discussion of MasterTalk. What do you like? Do you have any thought on the subject. Many words can signal that dialogue is being used. Of course, my belief plus a dollar get me a poor cup of coffee.
What do you believe? MasterTalk is so common in the media and at home that it seems almost automatic. I think it is the most common kind of communication that children hear from adults.
Dialogue usually must be taught to adults who have lived in this country. In the process I help them unlearn MasterTalk. What makes teaching Dialogue easier is that it seems more natural. The process of dialogue matches well with the internal self-awareness of human brains. Communication that acknowledges differences is natural. I think it is Master Talk that has to be taught. There is also the long-term stability.
A Master has the benefit of feeling the center of attention and having a sense of control. This latter seems the more important. Many times I see people who had no control as children, and who grow up to value that sense of control in their relationship.
True the control comes at a price of having to use the Punishment System and also all that instability. I find that some people who have been in the Master position often want to quit. What, you may ask, makes a person stay in the Slave position for so long. Slaves have no responsibility. Slaves avoid responsibility for their own actions.
There is no time when you are not responsible. But this means that people have to get clear on who is responsible for what. This is the subject of Boundary skills that you hear so much of. Friends are responsible for their actions and their reactions as well. Friends are also responsible to assist other people with their responsibilities. One of the most important human attributes is Empathy. A good definition is the ability to relate to the inner world of another person as different from your own.
This attribute is pretty much only found in Friend — Friend relationships. Slaves tend to demonstrate sympathy. Masters tend to be blind to how they come across to others. An argument is about two people, lacking empathy, who are defending themselves while hurting, punishing, the other — all without much awareness. They want control, but not responsibility. So perhaps the best solution is to write your first draft the way you usually would, then afterward look at each sentence and ask "Is this the way I'd say this if I were talking to a friend?
After a while this filter will start to operate as you write. When you write something you wouldn't say, you'll hear the clank as it hits the page.
Before I publish a new essay, I read it out loud and fix everything that doesn't sound like conversation. I even fix bits that are phonetically awkward; I don't know if that's necessary, but it doesn't cost much.
This trick may not always be enough. I've seen writing so far removed from spoken language that it couldn't be fixed sentence by sentence. For cases like that there's a more drastic solution. After writing the first draft, try explaining to a friend what you just wrote. Then replace the draft with what you said to your friend. People often tell me how much my essays sound like me talking. The fact that this seems worthy of comment shows how rarely people manage to write in spoken language.
Otherwise everyone's writing would sound like them talking. And it's so easy to do: Thanks to Patrick Collison and Jessica Livingston for reading drafts of this.
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people. Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. Friendship has been studied in academic fields such as communication, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and ovaren.cfs academic theories of friendship have been proposed, including social exchange theory, equity theory, relational.
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I remain the official Senior Maverick for Wired, a magazine I helped co-found 25 years ago. I do one article for Wired per year. My most recent published writings are listed here, in chronological order. My newest book, The Inevitable, a New York Times bestseller, is now available in paperback. The. John Kennedy was a Cold Warrior who escalated American involvement in Vietnam, and believed in the Domino Theory of communist expansion.
C. olumbus, Georgia, is, above all else, an Army infantry town, and it showed in the crowd on the Friday night that Tim O’Brien came to tell war stories: it was an audience of windbreakers and baseball hats marked by military insignia; square jaws and tattoo sleeves from shoulder to wrist; and my husband next to me, just back from his first deployment to Afghanistan, his shoulders bigger. An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". It .