Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:.
Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner. Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give.
In addition to the methods listed above some individuals also include qualitative as a distinct method and archival methods when discussing descriptive research methods.
It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected. It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A? Nothing could be further from the truth. Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 3rd edition. Jamie has written seven books and co-authored one.
Find help or get online counseling now. By Jamie Hale, M. Observational Method With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed. Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real-life situations. Quantitative Approaches In this module, the four approaches to quantitative research are described and examples are provided. List and explain the four approaches to quantitative research.
Provide an example of each method. Describe how to identify the appropriate approach for a particular research problem. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches.
Research methods in education and psychology: Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Page Options Share Email Link. Share Facebook Twitter LinkedIn. Pinning this post will make it stay at the top of its channel and widgets. This pin will expire , on Change This pin never expires.
Descriptive research questions Comparative research questions Relationship-based research questions. Descriptive research questions Descriptive research questions simply aim to describe the variables you are measuring. We provide some examples below: How many calories do Americans consume per day?
Daily calorific intake Group: How often do British university students use Facebook each week? Weekly Facebook usage Group: British university students Question: How often do male and female British university students upload photos and comment on other users' photos on Facebook each week? Weekly photo uploads on Facebook 2. Weekly comments on other users? Male, British university students 2.
Female, British university students Question: What are the most important factors that influence the career choices of Australian university students? Factors influencing career choices Group: Australian university students In each of these example descriptive research questions, we are quantifying the variables we are interested in.
What percentage of American men and women exceed their daily calorific allowance? What proportion of British male and female university students use the top 5 social networks? Use of top 5 social networks i. Female, British university students In terms of the first descriptive research question about daily calorific intake , we are not necessarily interested in frequencies , or using a measure of central tendency or measure of spread , but instead want understand what percentage of American men and women exceed their daily calorific allowance.
Comparative research questions Comparative research questions aim to examine the differences between two or more groups on one or more dependent variables although often just a single dependent variable.
Examples of comparative research questions include: What is the difference in the daily calorific intake of American men and women? Daily calorific intake Groups: What is the difference in the weekly photo uploads on Facebook between British male and female university students?
Weekly photo uploads on Facebook Groups: What are the differences in usage behaviour on Facebook between British male and female university students? Usage behaviour on Facebook e.
Types of Quantitative Design. Descriptive research seeks to describe the current status of an identified variable. These research projects are designed to provide systematic information about a phenomenon. The researcher does not usually begin with an hypothesis, but is likely to develop one after collecting data.
There are four main types of quantitative research designs: descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental and experimental. The differences between the four types primarily relates to the degree the researcher designs for control of the variables in the experiment.
In quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before and after a treatment). Descriptive Research Design: Definition, Examples & Types. Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, descriptive research is all.
Quantitative research design also tends to generate only proved or unproven results, with there being very little room for grey areas and uncertainty. For the social sciences, education, anthropology and psychology, human nature is a lot more complex than just a simple yes or no response. Types of quantitative research question. Dissertations that are based on a quantitative research design attempt to answer at least one quantitative research ovaren.cf some cases, these quantitative research questions will be followed by either research hypotheses or null ovaren.cfr, this article focuses solely on quantitative research .