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City Government and not members of the U. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise , which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential Electors , regardless of population. In , Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the and censuses.

This means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in , Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures.

Article I, Section 3 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for senators: The age and citizenship qualifications for senators are more stringent than those for representatives. The Senate not the judiciary is the sole judge of a senator's qualifications. During its early years, however, the Senate did not closely scrutinize the qualifications of its members. As a result, three senators who failed to meet the age requirement were nevertheless admitted to the Senate: Such an occurrence, however, has not been repeated since.

In November , Joe Biden was elected to the Senate at the age of 29, but he reached his 30th birthday before the swearing-in ceremony for incoming senators in January The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution disqualifies from the Senate any federal or state officers who had taken the requisite oath to support the Constitution, but later engaged in rebellion or aided the enemies of the United States. This provision, which came into force soon after the end of the Civil War, was intended to prevent those who had sided with the Confederacy from serving.

That Amendment, however, also provides a method to remove that disqualification: Originally, senators were selected by the state legislatures , not by popular elections. By the early years of the 20th century, the legislatures of as many as 29 states had provided for popular election of senators by referendums.

Senators serve terms of six years each; the terms are staggered so that approximately one-third of the seats are up for election every two years. This was achieved by dividing the senators of the 1st Congress into thirds called classes , where the terms of one-third expired after two years, the terms of another third expired after four, and the terms of the last third expired after six years.

This arrangement was also followed after the admission of new states into the union. The staggering of terms has been arranged such that both seats from a given state are not contested in the same general election, except when a mid-term vacancy is being filled.

Current senators whose six-year terms are set to expire on January 3, , belong to Class I. There is no constitutional limit to the number of terms a senator may serve. The Constitution set the date for Congress to convene—Article 1, Section 4, Clause 2 originally set that date for the third day of December. The Twentieth Amendment , however, changed the opening date for sessions to noon on the third day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

The Twentieth Amendment also states that Congress shall assemble at least once in every year and allows Congress to determine its convening and adjournment dates and other dates and schedules as it desires.

Article 1, Section 3 provides that the President has the power to convene Congress on extraordinary occasions at his discretion. A member who has been elected, but not yet seated, is called a "senator-elect"; a member who has been appointed to a seat, but not yet seated, is called a "senator-designate".

Elections to the Senate are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years, Election Day , and coincide with elections for the House of Representatives. The Elections Clause of the United States Constitution grants each state and Congress, if it so desires to implement a uniform law the power to legislate a method by which senators are elected.

Ballot access rules for independent and minor party candidates also vary from state to state. In 45 states, a primary election is held first for the Republican and Democratic parties and a select few third parties , depending on the state with the general election following a few months later. In most of these states, the nominee may receive only a plurality, while in some states, a runoff is required if no majority was achieved.

In the general election, the winner is the candidate who receives a plurality of the popular vote. However, in 5 states, different methods are used.

In Georgia , a runoff between the top two candidates occurs if the plurality winner in the general election does not also win a majority. In Washington , California , and Louisiana , a nonpartisan blanket primary also known as a "jungle primary" or "top-two primary" is held in which all candidates participate in a single primary regardless of party affiliation and the top two candidates in terms of votes received at the primary election advance to the general election, where the winner is the candidate with the greater number of votes.

In Louisiana, the blanket primary is considered the general election and the winner of the blanket primary can win the overall election if he or she received a majority of the vote, skipping the run-off. This can lead to a potential situation in those three states in which both candidates advancing are affiliated with the same party and the seat is considered "won" by that party even though a winner has not been determined yet overall.

In Maine , following two ballot initiatives in and , respectively, to establish and maintain instant-runoff voting , known in that state as "ranked-choice voting", the state uses RCV to nominate and elect candidates for federal offices, including the Senate.

The Seventeenth Amendment requires that mid-term vacancies in the Senate be filled by special election. Whenever a Senator must be appointed or elected, the Secretary of the Senate mails one of three forms to the state's governor to inform them of the proper wording to certify the appointment of a new senator. A senator elected in a special election takes office as soon as possible after the election and serves until the original six-year term expires i.

The Seventeenth Amendment also allows state legislatures to give their governors the power "to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct". The temporary appointee may run in the special election in their own right.

As of , forty-five states permit their governors to make such appointments. In thirty-seven of these states, the special election to permanently fill the U. Senate seat is customarily held at the next general election. The other ten states require that seat remain vacant until an election can be held, often a special elections be held outside of the normal two-year election cycle.

In six states, the governor must appoint someone of the same political party as the previous incumbent. In , Alaska enacted legislation and a separate ballot referendum that took effect on the same day, but that conflicted with each other. The effect of the ballot-approved law is to withhold from the governor authority to appoint a senator. The Constitution requires that senators take an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution. So help me God. Along with earning salaries, senators receive retirement and health benefits that are identical to other federal employees, and are fully vested after five years of service.

As it is for federal employees, congressional retirement is funded through taxes and the participants' contributions. Under FERS, senators contribute 1. The amount of a senator's pension depends on the years of service and the average of the highest three years of their salary. Senators are regarded as more prominent political figures than members of the House of Representatives because there are fewer of them, and because they serve for longer terms, usually represent larger constituencies the exception being House at-large districts, which similarly cover entire states , sit on more committees, and have more staffers.

Far more senators have been nominees for the presidency than representatives. Furthermore, three senators Warren Harding , John F. Kennedy , and Barack Obama have been elected president while serving in the Senate, while only one Representative James Garfield has been elected president while serving in the House, though Garfield was also a Senator-designate at the time of his election to the Presidency, having been chosen by the Ohio Legislature to fill a Senate vacancy.

According to the convention of Senate seniority, the senator with the longer tenure in each state is known as the "senior senator"; the other is the "junior senator". This convention does not have official significance, though seniority generally is a factor in the selection of physical offices. The most-junior "senior senator" is Bill Cassidy of Louisiana , who was sworn in January 3, , and is currently 79th in seniority, ahead of senator John Neely Kennedy who was sworn in January 3, and is currently 95th in seniority.

The Senate may expel a senator by a two-thirds vote. Fifteen senators have been expelled in the Senate's history: William Blount , for treason, in , and fourteen in and for supporting the Confederate secession.

The Senate has also censured and condemned senators; censure requires only a simple majority and does not remove a senator from office. Some senators have opted to withdraw from their re-election races rather than face certain censure or expulsion, such as Robert Torricelli in The "Majority party" is the political party that either has a majority of seats or can form a coalition or caucus with a majority of seats; if two or more parties are tied, the vice president's affiliation determines which party is the majority party.

The next-largest party is known as the minority party. The president pro tempore, committee chairs, and some other officials are generally from the majority party; they have counterparts for instance, the "ranking members" of committees in the minority party. Independents and members of third parties so long as they do not caucus with or support either of the larger parties are not considered in determining which is the majority party.

At one end of the chamber of the Senate is a dais from which the presiding officer presides. The lower tier of the dais is used by clerks and other officials.

One hundred desks are arranged in the chamber in a semicircular pattern and are divided by a wide central aisle. The Democratic Party traditionally sits to the presiding officer's right, and the Republican Party traditionally sits to the presiding officer's left, regardless of which party has a majority of seats.

Each senator chooses a desk based on seniority within the party. By custom, the leader of each party sits in the front row along the center aisle.

Forty-eight of the desks date back to , when the Senate chamber was reconstructed after the original contents were destroyed in the Burning of Washington. Further desks of similar design were added as new states entered the Union. Except for the President of the Senate, the Senate elects its own officers, [1] who maintain order and decorum, manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate, and interpret the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.

Many non-member officers are also hired to run various day-to-day functions of the Senate. He or she may vote in the Senate ex officio , for he or she is not an elected member of the Senate in the case of a tie, but is not required to.

Since the s, Vice Presidents have presided over few Senate debates. Instead, they have usually presided only on ceremonial occasions, such as swearing in new senators, joint sessions, or at times to announce the result of significant legislation or nomination, or when a tie vote on an important issue is anticipated. The Constitution authorizes the Senate to elect a president pro tempore Latin for "president for a time" who presides over the chamber in the vice president's absence, and is, by custom, the senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.

Frequently, freshmen senators newly elected members are asked to preside so that they may become accustomed to the rules and procedures of the body. The presiding officer sits in a chair in the front of the Senate chamber. The powers of the presiding officer of the Senate are far less extensive than those of the Speaker of the House.

The presiding officer calls on senators to speak by the rules of the Senate, the first senator who rises is recognized ; ruling on points of order objections by senators that a rule has been breached, subject to appeal to the whole chamber ; and announcing the results of votes.

Each party elects Senate party leaders. Floor leaders act as the party chief spokesmen. The Senate Majority Leader is responsible for controlling the agenda of the chamber by scheduling debates and votes. Each party elects an assistant leader whip who works to ensure that his party's senators vote as the party leadership desires. In addition to the Vice President, the Senate has several officers who are not members. The Senate's chief administrative officer is the Secretary of the Senate , who maintains public records, disburses salaries, monitors the acquisition of stationery and supplies, and oversees clerks.

The Assistant Secretary of the Senate aids the secretary's work. Another official is the Sergeant at Arms who, as the Senate's chief law enforcement officer, maintains order and security on the Senate premises.

The Capitol Police handle routine police work, with the sergeant at arms primarily responsible for general oversight. Other employees include the Chaplain , who is elected by the Senate, and Pages , who are appointed.

The Senate uses Standing Rules for operation. Sessions of the Senate are opened with a special prayer or invocation and typically convene on weekdays. Senate procedure depends not only on the rules, but also on a variety of customs and traditions.

The Senate commonly waives some of its stricter rules by unanimous consent. Unanimous consent agreements are typically negotiated beforehand by party leaders. A senator may block such an agreement, but in practice, objections are rare. The presiding officer enforces the rules of the Senate, and may warn members who deviate from them.

The presiding officer sometimes uses the gavel of the Senate to maintain order. A " hold " is placed when the leader's office is notified that a senator intends to object to a request for unanimous consent from the Senate to consider or pass a measure.

A hold may be placed for any reason and can be lifted by a senator at any time. A senator may place a hold simply to review a bill, to negotiate changes to the bill, or to kill the bill. A bill can be held for as long as the senator who objects to the bill wishes to block its consideration.

Holds can be overcome, but require time-consuming procedures such as filing cloture. Holds are considered private communications between a senator and the Leader, and are sometimes referred to as "secret holds". A senator may disclose that he or she has placed a hold. The Constitution provides that a majority of the Senate constitutes a quorum to do business.

Under the rules and customs of the Senate, a quorum is always assumed present unless a quorum call explicitly demonstrates otherwise. A senator may request a quorum call by "suggesting the absence of a quorum"; a clerk then calls the roll of the Senate and notes which members are present. In practice, senators rarely request quorum calls to establish the presence of a quorum. Instead, quorum calls are generally used to temporarily delay proceedings; usually such delays are used while waiting for a senator to reach the floor to speak or to give leaders time to negotiate.

Once the need for a delay has ended, a senator may request unanimous consent to rescind the quorum call. Debate, like most other matters governing the internal functioning of the Senate, is governed by internal rules adopted by the Senate. During debate, senators may only speak if called upon by the presiding officer, but the presiding officer is required to recognize the first senator who rises to speak.

Thus, the presiding officer has little control over the course of debate. Customarily, the Majority Leader and Minority Leader are accorded priority during debates even if another senator rises first. All speeches must be addressed to the presiding officer, who is addressed as "Mr.

President" or "Madam President", and not to another member; other Members must be referred to in the third person. In most cases, senators do not refer to each other by name, but by state or position, using forms such as "the senior senator from Virginia", "the gentleman from California", or "my distinguished friend the Chairman of the Judiciary Committee". Senators address the Senate standing next to their desk. Apart from rules governing civility, there are few restrictions on the content of speeches; there is no requirement that speeches pertain to the matter before the Senate.

The rules of the Senate provide that no senator may make more than two speeches on a motion or bill on the same legislative day. A legislative day begins when the Senate convenes and ends with adjournment; hence, it does not necessarily coincide with the calendar day. The length of these speeches is not limited by the rules; thus, in most cases, senators may speak for as long as they please.

Often, the Senate adopts unanimous consent agreements imposing time limits. In other cases for example, for the budget process , limits are imposed by statute. However, the right to unlimited debate is generally preserved.

Within the United States, the Senate is sometimes referred to as "world's greatest deliberative body". The length of a term of office for members of the United States Senate is six years. There are no restrictions on the number of times a senator may be re-elected.

How long are the terms of US senators and representatives? US Senators hold office for six-year terms and Representatives serve two-year terms. What is the length of a congressional term in the us? A US Representative's term is regularly 2 years. There is no limit on how many times a representative can stand for re-election. Elections are held the first week of November in even numbered years. A Senator is 6 year terms. They are in three classes, so not all are up reelecton at the same time.

Length of term of office for senate? The Senate enjoys six-year terms as opposed to the House's two-yearterms. Both houses of Congress enjoy serving unlimited terms. What is the term of office for a US Senator? US Senators serve six-year terms, with no term limits. The Senators are divided into three groups for election purposes, with one group up for election in each even-numbered year.

What is the term length for Texas state senators? I'm researching it myself to find out. How long is the term of office for the US Senate? There are no term limits, and 'seniority' rules mean thatthose elected repeatedly often wield more authority in committees. What are the requirements for holding office and the term lengths for members of the Senate?

What is the term limit for a US senator? Senator's do not have a term limit they can run as many times as they wish, they have six year terms. Both may be reelected indefinitely; therefore, there are no term limits. The length of term for a US court judge? Retiring justices do this in order to "maximize" their historical impact.

What are the term lengths of US Senators and Congressmen? How many terms can a US senator serve? There are no term limits in the United States Senate.

Many senators serve several terms. For example, Robert Byrd of West Virginia, the longest serving Senator ever, began his 9th term in January of and served until he died in A US senator can be elected as many times as he can get enough votes, but he has to run again every 6 years. What is the length of time a US senator can stay in office and requirements for becoming a senator?

No term limits, but each term is 6 years in office. What is the term length for a member of the us senate? US senators are elected to terms of 6 years. The Senate is divided into three groups, such that about one-third of the office holders are up for election every two years. Do US senators have a term limit? What is the length of one term for the US president?

US presidents are elected to a four-year term. President can be elected to that office two times. Since each term is 4 years, that totals 8 years. HOWEVER, if a Vice President has to serve out the term of a former President say, the President died , that person can legally serve out the remainder of that term, AND still be elected to two more terms, provided the partial term was no longer than 2 years. Whats the term length of the senate? Each Senator is elected to a six year term.

The terms are staggeredso that every Senator is not up for election every time. What is the purpose of the length of the term for the US Senate? The six year term of office with one third of the members facing an election every two years, insures that this house remains a more deliberative body, even a more civilized body where the more stable and smaller population gets to know and respect each other.

Their politics may differ, but they rarely display genuine animosity toward their fellow Senators. They debate, while the lower House tends to fight, bicker and to be much more partisan. What are the term limits for US Senators? A simple majority of the membership of a committee or the Assembly or Senate; the minimum number of legislators needed to begin conducting official business. The absence of a quorum is grounds for immediate adjournment of a committee hearing or floor session. Transmitting the message that members are needed to establish a quorum so that proceedings may begin.

Presentation of a bill before the house by reading its number, author, and title. A bill is on either first, second, or third reading until it is passed by both houses.

Revising the allocation of congressional seats based on census results. Also used to refer to redistricting the revision of legislative district boundaries to reflect census results. A motion giving the opportunity to take another vote on a matter previously decided in a committee hearing or floor session.

The method, used by members of the public, by which a measure adopted by the Legislature may be submitted to the electorate for a vote. A referendum petition must be signed by electors equal in number to 5 percent of the votes for all candidates for Governor at the last gubernatorial election. Recording the vote of each member of a committee or of the full Assembly or Senate. Committee roll calls are conducted by the committee secretary, who calls each member's name in alphabetical order with the name of the chair called last.

Assembly roll calls are conducted electronically, with each Member pushing a button from his or her assigned seat. Senate roll calls are conducted by the Reading Clerk, who reads each Senator's name in alphabetical order. Principles formally adopted to govern the operation of either or both houses. Second reading occurs after a bill has been reported to the floor from committee. The portion of the Daily File that lists measures that have been reported out of committee.

Measures stay on the second reading file for one legislative day before moving to the third reading portion of the File. A Senate employee serving as principal parliamentarian and record keeper for the Senate, elected by Senators at the beginning of each two-year session.

The Senate Secretary and his or her staff are responsible for publishing the Senate daily and weekly publications. Ordinarily, a portion of the California Codes or other statutory law; alternatively, a portion of the text of a bill.

The text of code sections is set forth in bills as proposed to be amended, repealed, or added. The house of the California Legislature consisting of 40 members elected from districts apportioned on the basis of population, one-half of whom are elected or re-elected every two years for four-year terms.

Employee responsible for maintaining order and providing security for the Legislature. The Chief Sergeant-at-Arms in each house is elected by the Members of that house at the beginning of every legislative session.

The period during which the Legislature meets. The Legislature may meet in either regular or special extraordinary session. The presiding officer of the Assembly, elected by the membership of the Assembly at the beginning of the two-year session. This is the highest-ranking Member of the Assembly. Member, appointed to this office by the Speaker, who presides over a floor session of the Assembly at the request of the Speaker.

Occasionally a bill is of such importance that advance notice is given as to when it will be considered by the Assembly or Senate. Notice is given during a floor session by requesting unanimous consent to set the bill as a special order of business on a specific date and time.

This assures adequate time for debate and allows all Members the opportunity to be present. The Member of the Legislature, private individual, or group who develops a measure and advocates its passage. A bill that proposes nonsubstantive amendments to a code section in a particular subject; introduced to assure that a bill will be available, subsequent to the deadline to introduce bills, for revision by amendments that are germane to the subject of the bill.

Head of the Bureau of State Audits, which conducts financial and performance audits of the state and local government agencies at the request of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee. State legislative enactment or administrative regulation that mandates a new program or higher level of service on the part of a local government, the costs of which are required by the California Constitution to be reimbursed. Enacted bills, which are chaptered by the Secretary of State in the order in which they become law.

A subgroup of a full committee, appointed to perform work on one or more functions of the committee. Digests of each bill enacted in a two-year session, as prepared and compiled by the Legislative Counsel. The measures are listed by chapter number, reflecting the order in which they were signed into law. A motion to waive requirements that the California Constitution imposes, but permits to be waived in a specified manner.

A motion to suspend requires an extraordinary vote. Any bill that imposes, repeals, or materially alters a state tax. The Legislative Counsel indicates in the title and Digest of the bill whether the bill is a tax levy. Third reading occurs when the measure is about to be taken up on the floor of either house for final passage. A summary of a measure that is ready for floor consideration. Describes most recent amendments and contains information regarding how Members voted on the measure when it was heard in committee.

Senate floor analyses also list support or opposition by interest groups and government agencies. That portion of the Daily File listing the bills that are ready to be taken up for final passage. The material on the first page of a bill that identifies the provisions of law affected by the bill and the subject matter of the bill.

In the Assembly, 54; in the Senate, Required, for example, for urgency measures and most measures making appropriations from the General Fund. The consent of all of those Members present, ordinarily presumed to exist in the absence of objection. That portion of the Daily File that contains measures awaiting Senate or Assembly concurrence in amendments adopted by the other house.

Also contains measures vetoed by the Governor for a day period after the veto or Governor's Appointments for confirmation. Section of a bill stating that the bill will take effect immediately upon enactment. A vote on the urgency clause, requiring a two-thirds vote in each house, must precede a vote on the bill.

A bill affecting the public peace, health, or safety, containing an urgency clause, and requiring a two-thirds vote for passage. An urgency bill becomes effective immediately upon enactment. The Governor's formal rejection of a measure passed by the Legislature.

The Governor may also exercise a line item veto, whereby the amount of an appropriation is reduced or eliminated, while the rest of the bill is approved see Blue Pencil.

A veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote in each house. A vote that requires only an oral "aye" or "no," with no official count taken. The presiding officer determines whether the "ayes" or "noes" carry. Skip to main content. Act A bill passed by the Legislature and enacted into law. Adjournment Termination of a meeting, occurring at the close of each legislative day upon the completion of business, with the hour and day of the next meeting being set prior to adjournment.

Adjournment Sine Die Final adjournment of the Legislature; regular sessions of the Legislature, and any special session not previously adjourned, are adjourned sine die at midnight on November 30 of each even-numbered year.

Adoption Approval or acceptance; usually applied to amendments, resolutions, or motions. Amendment Proposal to change the text of a bill after it has been introduced. Author amendments - Amendments proposed by the bill's author. Author's amendments to a bill may be adopted on the floor prior to the committee hearing on the bill with the committee chair's approval. Hostile amendments - Amendments proposed by another member and opposed by the author in a committee hearing or during Assembly or Senate Floor consideration.

Analysis of the Budget Bill The Legislative Analyst's comprehensive examination of the Governor's budget, available to legislators and the public about six weeks after the Governor submits the budget to the Legislature. Appropriation The amount of money made available for expenditure by a specific entity for a specific purpose, from the General Fund or other designated state fund or account. Appropriations Limit A limitation in the California Constitution on the maximum amount of tax proceeds that state or local government may appropriate in a fiscal year.

Approved by the Governor Signature of the Governor on a bill passed by the Legislature. Archives Refers to both location and contents of public records kept by the Secretary of State, including copies of all measures considered at each session, journals, committee reports, and documents of historic value.

Assembly The house of the California Legislature consisting of 80 members, elected from districts determined on the basis of population. Author Member of the Legislature who introduces a legislative measure.

BCP Budget Change Proposal A document prepared by a state agency, and submitted to the Department of Finance, to propose and document budget changes to support operations of the agency in the next fiscal year; used in preparing the Governor's budget.

Bicameral Refers to a legislature consisting of two houses see Unicameral. Bill A proposed law, introduced during a session for consideration by the Legislature, and identified numerically in order of presentation; also, a reference that may include joint and concurrent resolutions and constitutional amendments. Blue Pencil The California Constitution grants the Governor "line item veto" authority to reduce or eliminate any item of appropriation in any bill including the Budget Bill.

Bond Bill general obligation bonds A bill authorizing the sale of state general obligation bonds to finance specified projects or activities. Budget Proposed expenditure of state moneys for the next fiscal year, presented by the Governor in January of each year for consideration by the Legislature; compiled by the Department of Finance, in conjunction with state agency and department heads.

Budget Act The Budget Bill after it has been enacted into law. Budget Bill The bill setting forth the spending proposal for the next fiscal year, containing the budget submitted to the Legislature by the Governor. Budget Year The fiscal year addressed by a proposed budget, beginning July 1 and ending June Call of the House On motion from the floor to place a call of the house, the presiding officer directs the Sergeant-at-Arms to lock the chambers and bring in the absent Members by arrest, if necessary to vote on a measure under consideration.

Call the Absentees Order by the presiding officer directing the reading clerk to call the names of Members who have not responded to the roll call. Capital Outlay Generally, expenditures to acquire or construct real property. Capitol Press Corps Those members of the press who cover events in the Capitol. Casting Vote The deciding vote the Lieutenant Governor may cast in the case of a tie vote in the Senate.

Caucus 1 A closed meeting of legislators of one's own party. Chair The current presiding officer, usually in the context of a committee hearing. Chamber The Assembly or Senate location where floor sessions are held. Chapter When a bill has been passed by the Legislature and enacted into law, the Secretary of State assigns the bill a "chapter number" such as "Chapter , Statutes of ," which is subsequently used to refer to the measure in place of the bill number.

Chapter Out When, during a calendar year, two or more bills amend the same section of law and more than one of those bills becomes law, the bill enacted last and therefore given a higher chapter number becomes law and prevails over the bill or bills previously enacted see Double Joint.

Check-in Session Certain weekdays when legislators do not meet in formal legislative sessions, they are required to "check in" with the Chief Clerk of the Assembly or Secretary of the Senate. Chief Clerk An Assembly employee elected by Assembly Members at the beginning of every two-year session to serve as principal parliamentarian and record keeper of the Assembly.

Coauthor A member of either house whose name is added to a bill as a coauthor by amending the bill, usually indicating support for the proposal. Codes Bound volumes of law organized by subject matter.

Committee of the Whole The Assembly or Senate meeting as a committee for the purpose of receiving information. Companion Bill An identical bill introduced in the other house. Concurrence The approval by the house of origin of a bill as amended in the other house.

Concurrent Resolution A measure introduced in one house that, if approved, must be sent to the other house for approval. Conferees Members of a conference committee. Conference Committee Usually composed of three legislators two voting in the majority on the disputed issue, one voting in the minority from each house, a conference committee meets in public session to forge one version of a bill when the house of origin has refused to concur in amendments to the bill adopted by the other house.

Confirm The process whereby one or both houses approve the Governor's appointments to executive offices, departments, boards, and commissions. Consent Calendar File containing bills that received no dissenting votes in committee. Constituent A person who resides within the district represented by a legislator.

Constitutional Amendment A resolution proposing a change to the California Constitution. Consultant Ordinarily, a professional staff person who works for a legislative committee. Contingent Effect Section in a bill indicating that it is to become operative only upon the enactment of another measure to be distinguished from double jointing. Convene To assemble a meeting. Each house of the Legislature usually convenes twice a week.

Daily File Publication produced by each house for each day the house is in session. Daily History Produced by the Assembly and Senate respectively the day after each house has met. Daily Journal Produced by the Assembly and Senate respectively the day after a floor session. Desk The long desk in front of the presiding officer's rostrum where much of the clerical work of the body is conducted.

Desk Is Clear Statement by the presiding officer that there is no further business before the house. Digest Prepared by the Legislative Counsel, it summarizes the effect of a proposed bill on current law. District The area of the state represented by a legislator. District Bill A bill that generally affects only the district of the Member of the Legislature who introduced the bill.

Do Pass Motion that, if adopted by a committee, moves a bill to the floor or to the next committee. Double Joint Amendments to a bill providing that the amended bill does not override the provisions of another bill, where both bills propose to amend the same section of law see Chapter Out. Double Refer Legislation recommended for referral to two policy committees for hearing rather than one. Dropped Author has decided not to pursue the passage of the bill. Enacting Clause The following phrase at the beginning of the text of each bill: Enrollment Whenever a bill passes both houses of the Legislature, it is ordered enrolled.

Executive Session A committee meeting restricted to committee members and specifically invited persons. Expunge A motion by which an action taken in a floor session is deleted from the Daily Journal for example, "Expunge the record". Extraordinary Session A special legislative session called by the Governor by proclamation to address only those issues specified in the proclamation; also referred to as a special session.

File See Daily File. Final History The publication printed at the end of every session showing the final disposition of all measures. Finance Letter Revisions to the Budget Bill proposed by the Department of Finance and addressed to appropriate committee chairs in the Assembly and Senate.

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* appointed to fill a vacancy, this seat will appear on the next general election ballot. The elected senator will complete the current term of office. (1) The Assembly or Senate Chamber. (2) The term used to describe the location of a bill or the type of session, connoting action to be taken by the house. Matters may be said to be "on the floor." Floor .