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Features of academic writing


❶It is unquestionable that our survey proved that the portrayal of alcohol and drinking characters in movies directly leads to more alcohol consumption in young adult male viewers when alcohol is available within the situation. It's kind of difficult for me to do that.

Language Function with Example Phrases

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Modal adjectives
Modal verbs

It seems likely that the details of the predictions depend on the assumed variations of the toughest parameter and the yield stress. If a real physical system shows a variation of both material properties across the graded layer, the assumed linear variation may not give the best approximation. If shows variation properties assumed linear may the best approximation. The idea of 'community' in terms of GRT lives is very strong and could be seen to correspond to some of the nostalgic constructs that non-GRT groups place on 'community'.

This scatter can be attributed to the difficulties in measuring the dent depth due to specimen processing. Sometimes, a hedge is expressed through a modal verb, but at other times, it is achieved through using a noun. In the following exercise you can see the different ways in which hedging can be achieved. Look at the list of words above the check boxes.

Decide which type of word or phrase this is. Check the most appropriate check box before checking your answer with the feedback button. If you need help with this activity, try using the following website uefap. It can be argued that It can thus be concluded that One can assume that It can be that, for young adult males, the portrayal of alcohol on a television screen might lead to increased alcohol consumption.

The clue is in the clause 'the portrayal of alcohol on a television screen might lead to increased alcohol consumption'. In this clause the writer is drawing a logical conclusion and therefore hte word 'concluded' is the best fit. The word 'suggested' would not work because the clause, 'the protrayal of alcohol on a television screen might lead to increased alcohol consumption' is not a suggestion.

The word 'estimate is also unsuitablt because the clause 'the protrayal of alcohol on a television screen might lead to increased alcohol consumption' is not a guess - guesses suggest that there is no evidence. The word proven is also unsuitable as this conclusion has not been scientifically proven.

The word 'might' demonstrates this. It is not that the characters in the movies are generally regarded as positive McIntosh et al. When in real life, anticipation of others' reactions be among the causes of imitation. The example sentence is not giving advice.

Nevertheless, from an experimental perspective, it be better to a compare a movie without any alcohol portrayals versus a movie with many alcohol portrayals or b to use one movie but to do careful editing to leave out all alcohol scenes in one version. Furthermore, it is also that besides imitation, the activation of alcohol norms appeals to pre-existing norms and expectancies of people, which lead to alcohol intake, or that alcohol portrayals on films and in commercials function as a cue that affects craving in drinkers Larsen et al,.

Whereas possible still maintains the notion of possibility. However, it is unknown the underlying mechanisms differ for food or drink portrayals in the media. If this is the , the actual effect of the portrayal of alcohol be even stronger. The first answer is: The second answer is: It would need to be followed by the word 'to'. Implications, because this suggests that there are outcomes which result from this.

The second answer could be either: The third answer is: It be interesting to test whether the effects of alcohol commercials are beverage specific. In this activity you will coplete hedged expressions using vocabulary you have looked at in previous acativities.

You will not be given a choice of words. Complete the expressions using a word of your own choice. Remember to use 'cautious' language and to 'hedge'. The present results further that the estimated effect of body fatness on LVM depends largely on the particular combination of body-size and body-fatness predictors chosen for the LVM models.

Although adults with higher BMI values to be more obese, BMI per se does not provide information on relative amounts of FFM and fat mass, nor does it estimate the absolute value of body fat. Although adults with higher BMI values have a tendency It is that after the placebo preload, participants became more wary of the task, perhaps owing to the previous experience of having to inhibit responses suddenly after the habit-forming in blocks 2 and 4. Thus, it be that in accordance with Marinkovic et al.

However, as the effects were seen on latencies not on error commission during the no-go condition, it be that a priming dose of alcohol may have a greater effect on active approach systems like BAS. In this last interactive activity you will answer questions related to hedging. If you have spent time working your way through the previous activities you should find the quiz poses no obstacles for you.

Click on the link, open the quiz and answer the questions. You will be prompted to try again if you do not guess the answer correctly. You can try as many times as you like to answer the questions. The impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on adolescent alcohol use: Alcohol portrayal on television affects actual drinking behaviour. Alcohol effects on movement-related potentials: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Journal of Applied Social Psychology Understandings of Community and Safety.

The influence of alcohol on basic motoric and cognitive disinhibition. As I typed the sentence above it occurred to me that it would could?! But I'll leave it unedited as a small reminder that we need to consider how strong or weak we want our hedging to be in our writing, and indeed if we want or need to use these words and phrases at all! There will be times when your readers will want to see that you are happy to stand by your ideas and statements; too much hedging will only make it seem as if you are writing without any conviction.

And why should they have any belief in what you write if it appears that you do not? Use them where needed to soften what you say - to make it less direct - and to limit or qualify claims and statements you make. Typely proofreading software identifies hedging language words and phrases in your texts, giving you the opportunity to consider the results and, depending on how strong or weak you need your hedging to be, you can tweak or rewrite accordingly. To keep up to date with the latest updates about Typely's proofreading software, and the latest writing and language articles from the blog, sign up below.

Stay up to date! What is hedging language? Hedging language is also known as cautious language or vague language. In this context, a hedge noun is a cautious, vague, or evasive statement. Examples of hedge words and phrases Hedging is achieved in many different ways, including: Modal verbs Such as: Human expansion of the greenhouse effect is the cause of global warming Modal adjectives Such as: The study's results are likely due to chance.

The study's results are due to chance. We could conceivably finish the design outline by Friday. Lexical verbs Such as: I suggest that we wait another week. Scientists believe there will soon be a cure for this disease. Introductory phrases For example: It appears that… It can be argued that… We can assume that… It is likely to be the case that… It is probable that It is conceivable that It can be concluded that… The data indicate Here are some examples of hedging in use in academic writing:


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It is often believed that academic writing, particularly scientific writing, is factual, simply to convey facts and information. However it is now recognised that an important feature of academic writing is the concept of cautious language, often called "hedging" or .

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In academic writing, it is prudent to be cautious in one’s statements so as to distinguish between facts and claims. This is commonly known as “hedging.” Hedging is the use of linguistic devices to express hesitation or uncertainty as well as to demonstrate politeness and indirectness.

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Development Hedging in Academic Writing To ‘hedge’: To use an intentionally noncommittal or ambiguous statement To use evasive or deliberately vague language. Hedging is one mechanism that you can use to manage the tone, attitude, and information within your document. In academic writing, hedging involves using language that is tentative or qualifying in nature to enable you to maintain an attitude of objectivity; academic readers often associate objectivity (among other things, like quality .

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The present study explores the use of hedges in academic writing based on Hyland's () pragmatic framework of hedging orientations. It also elicits insight from specialist informants on the use of hedges in academic writing. Hedging in Academic Writing iday ). It allows academics to take a rhetorical stance, to downplay their statements and anticipate audience responses by adjusting the degree of.