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Photosynthesis: Essay on Photosynthesis (2098 Words)

Researchers enhance the photosynthetic yield of tobacco plants with genetic engineering.

❶The vertical axis shows the midpoint potential of the electron carriers.


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Contact our support team if you have questions or need assistance in writing your research paper in biology or place an order. Free Assistance — Sample Research Paper. Here is a list of sample papers that PrivateWriting did for its customers. Many techniques and tools developed for photosynthesis research have not been widely used in other fields because they were developed to examine phenomena unique to photosynthesis. For example, excitation energy transfer and charge separation are fundamental but unique processes of photosynthesis.

Another reason for the historic isolation of photosynthesis research within plant science is that it was long believed that CO 2 fixation and carbohydrate production are the sole function of photosynthesis, with carbohydrates representing the only link between photosynthesis and other biological phenomena. However, this situation has begun to change. Recent research has revealed that photosynthesis is closely related to a variety of other physiological processes. It is a major system for controlling the redox state of cells, playing an important role in regulating enzyme activity and many other cellular processes Buchanan and Balmer , Hisabori et al.

Photosynthesis also generates reactive oxygen species, which are now appreciated as being regulatory factors for many biological processes rather than inevitable by-products of photosynthesis Wagner et al. Precursor molecules of Chl, which are a major component of photosynthesis, act as a chloroplast-derived signal, and are involved in regulating the cell cycle Kobayashi et al.

In light of this new information, it seems important to re-evaluate the function s , both potential and demonstrated, of photosynthesis from a variety of view points.

Photosynthesis research now employs the methods and tools of molecular biology and genetics, which are central methods for plant science in general. Meanwhile, Chl fluorescence and gas exchange measurements, developed especially for photosynthesis research, are now widely used in stress biology and ecology. Photosynthesis research also contributes to our understanding of ecological phenomena and even the global environments Farquhar et al.

Indeed, photosynthesis is now an integral component of simulation models used to predict the future of our planet. Improving the efficiency of photosynthesis by artificial modification of photosynthetic proteins and pathways has long been considered impossible or at best problematic, because, over evolutionary time, photosynthesis has become complex and tightly regulated.

However, recent advances have made it possible to manipulate photosynthesis using molecular genetic technology Andrews and Whiney , Raines These advances may have positive influences on crop productivity Parry et al.

Thus, we can expect many more novel concepts to be added to this history of photosynthetic research. As photosynthesis research tackles new challenges, we should also continue to re-evaluate past research. Oxygen evolution, energy dissipation and cyclic electron transport are crucial processes during photosynthesis, yet their mechanisms still remain to be clarified. We have very limited knowledge of the formation and degradation of photosynthetic apparatus. Also, although photosynthesis plays a central role in C and N metabolism in plants, we do not yet understand how potential photosynthesis is related to crop productivity.

Plant and Cell Physiology would like to contribute to the development of novel concepts, pioneering new fields and solving the unanswered questions of photosynthesis. This special issue covers a wide range of topics in photosynthesis research. They show that the light profile through a leaf is steeper than that of photosynthesis, and that the green wavelengths in white light are more effective in driving photosynthesis than red light.

This new multilayered model can be applied to study variations in light absorption profiles, photosynthetic capacity and calculation of chloroplastic CO 2 concentration at different depths through the leaf. Singlet oxygen, 1 O 2 , is produced by the photosystem and Chl pigments. The flu mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana overaccumulates protochlorophyllide that upon illumination generates singlet oxygen, causing growth cessation and cell death.

Phephorbide a is a degradation product of Chl and one of the most powerful photosensitzing molecules. Mutants defective in pheophorbide a oxygenase, which converts phephorbide a to open tetrapyrrole, accumulate pheophorbide a and display cell death in a light-dependent manner. The enzyme needed for this is called RUBP carboxylase.

The combination of carbon dioxide with ribulose biphosphate gives an unstable 6-carbon compound which splits immediately into two molecules of a 3-carbon Compound, phosphoglyceric acid PGA. The hydrogen for the reduction comes from reduced NADP of light reaction, which also supplies most of the energy, the rest coming from ATP. The 3-carbon sugar is now built up to a 6-carbon sugar which can be converted into starch for storage.

Not all the 3-carbon sugar PGAL is converted into 6-carbon sugar. Some of it majority infact enters a series of reactions which results in the regeneration of ribulose biphosphate. Its continuous supply is important for the continued fixation of CO 2.

It represents a storage of , calories per mole. The starch is not the only end-product of photosynthesis. For amino acids formation, nitrates are required. These are converted to ammonium ions which are used for the formation of glutamine.

Fnm this other amino acids are made by transamination. In transaminat on, the amino group is removed from amino acid and transferred to a carbohydrate derivative which is thereby converted into a new amino acid. Some plants like cane-type plants such as sugar cane and maize, use another compound, phosphoenol pyruvic acid PEP instead of ribulose biphosphate, as the substrate for carbon dioxide fixation in certain of their cells.

The immediate product of CO 2 fixation is not 3-carbon PGA but the 4-carbon compound oxaloacetic acid. Because of this, such plants are called C 4 plants in contrast to those that produce 3-carbon PGA which are known as C 3 plants. The oxaloacetic acid of C 4 plants is subsequently converted into malic acid, from which CO 2 is fed into the Calvin cycle to form carbohydrate.

Some unpigmented plastids like leucoplasts store the essential food materials like protein, oil and starch. Later on these are used during germination of seeds and development. Recent studies show that these plastids, like chromosomes, are transmitted directly to the daughter cells during cell division.

Cytoplasmic inheritance of plastids in Mirabilis is the well-known example. They produce phenotypic effects in Oenothera and other plants.

Besides these, like mitochondria, it contains RNA, DNA and ribosomes, and is capable of carrying on protein synthesis. The chloroplast ribosomes are of the same size as ribosomes in prokaryotes.

Chloroplasts are also semi-autonomous like mitochondria. They can grow and divide, and their DNA contains a portion of the genetic information needed for the synthesis of chloroplast proteins. Cells have the capacity to outgrow their chloroplasts and the rate of multiplication of chloroplasts is partly independent of the rate of multiplication of entire cells. Brawerman and Chargaff discovered it in Euglena gracilis after a temperature shock. Cells which were permitted to multiply rapidly became irreversibly bleached, whereas cells prevented from dividing regained their normal ability to produce chloroplasts.

They concluded that Euglena contains an autonomously replicating factor which is necessary for chloroplast formation. DNA is found in chloroplasts Stocking and Gifford, Chloroplasts DNA are capable of self-duplication.

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Research Papers on Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Research Papers explore the process that is necessary for plants to survive. Photosynthesis is a complex process of how sunlight is turned into engery for plants.

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Photosynthesis Research is an international journal dealing with both basic and applied aspects of photosynthesis.

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Photosynthesis research now employs the methods and tools of molecular biology and genetics, which are central methods for plant science in general. Meanwhile, Chl fluorescence and gas exchange measurements, developed especially for photosynthesis research, are now widely used in stress biology and ecology. Photosynthesis Research is an international journal open to papers of merit dealing with both basic and applied aspects of photosynthesis. It covers all aspects of photosynthesis research, including, but not limited to, light absorption and emission, excitation energy transfer, primary photochemistry, model systems, membrane .

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Photosynthesis This Research Paper Photosynthesis and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Autor: review • November 1, • Research Paper • 1, Words (8 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1). Photosynthesis and is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the sun, into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organisms' activities.