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Research Methods for Business Students, 4th Edition

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❶At this end is research that is of direct and immediate relevance to managers addresses issues that they see as important andispresentedinwaysthattheyunderstandandcanacton.

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One implication of this is that it is sensible for you to start at the beginning and to work your way through the text various boxes self- check questions review and discussion questions case studies and case study questions.

You can do this in a variety of ways depending on your reasons for using this book. However this approach may not necessarily be suitable for your purposes and you may wish to read the chapters in a different order or just dip into particular sections of the book. If this is true for you then you will probably need to use the glossary to check that you understand some of the terms and concepts used in the chapters you read.

Suggestions for three of the more common ways in which you might wish to use this book are given below. As part of a research methods course or for self-study for your research project If you are using this book as part of a research methods course the order in which you read the chapters is likely to be prescribed by your tutors and dependent upon their per- ceptions of your needs.

Conversely if you are pursuing a course of self-study for your research project or dissertation the order in which you read the chapters is your own choice. However whichever of these you are we would argue that the order in which you read the chapters is dependent upon your recent academic experience.

In such situations it is probable that you will follow the chapter order quite closely see Figure P. In addition you might wish to read the sections in Chapter 14 on writing prior to starting to draft your critical review of the literature Chapter 3. Alternatively you may be returning to academic study after a gap of some years to take a full-time or part-time course such as a Master of Business Administration a Master of Arts or a Master of Science with a Business and Management focus.

Many students in such situations need to refresh their study skills early in their programme particularly those associated with critical reading of academic literature and academic writing.

In addition we would recommend you re-read Chapter 14 prior to starting to write your project report or dissertation. Whichever order you choose to read the chapters in we would recommend that you attempt all the self-check questions review and discussion questions and those questions associated with the case studies.

Your answers to the self-check questions can be self-assessed using the answers at the end of each chapter. Writing and presenting your project report Chapter 1: The nature of business and management research Chapter 2: Formulating and clarifying the research topic Chapter 3: Critically reviewing the literature Chapter 4: Understanding research philosophies and approaches Chapter 6: Negotiating access and research ethics Chapter 7: Selecting samples Chapter 8: Using secondary data Chapter 9: Collecting primary data through observation Chapter Collecting primary data using interviews and focus groups Chapter Collecting primary data using questionnaires Chapter Analysing quantitative data Chapter Analysing qualitative data Chapter 5: Formulating the research design Figure P.

Such tasks might involve you in just planning a research project or alternatively designing and administering a questionnaire of your own. As a guide through the research process If you are intending to use this book to guide you through the research process for a research project you are undertaking such as your dissertation we recommend that you read the entire book quickly before starting your research.

In that way you will have a good overview of the entire process including the range of techniques available and will be better able to plan your work.

The nature of business and management research Chapter 3: Critically reviewing the literature Chapter Writing and presenting your project report Chapter 8: Using secondary data Chapter 4: Understanding research philosophies and approaches Chapter 7: Selecting samples Chapter 9: Analysing qualitative data Chapter 2: Formulating and clarifying the research topic Chapter 6: Negotiating access and research ethics Chapter 5: After you have read the book once we suggest that you work your way through the book again following the chapter order.

This time you should attempt the self-check questions review and discussion questions and those questions associated with each case study to ensure that you have understood the material contained in each chapter prior to applying it to your own research project.

Your responses to self-check questions can be assessed using the answers at the end of each chapter. These articles are easily accessible via online databases. If you need further information on an idea technique or procedure then again start with the references in the further reading section.

Material in some of the chapters is likely to prove less relevant to some research topics than others. However you should beware of choosing techniques because you are happy with them if they are inappropriate. This will also help you to focus on the techniques and ideas that are most appropriate to your research. When you have also completed these tasks for Chapter 14 you will have written your project report. As a reference source It may be that you wish to use this book now or subsequently as a reference source.

If this is the case an extensive index will point you to the appropriate page or pages. In addition we have tried to help you to use the book in this way by including cross-references between sections in chapters as appropriate.

Do follow these up as necessary. If you need further information on an idea or a technique then begin by con- sulting the references in the further reading section. Wherever possible we have tried to reference books that are in print and readily available in university libraries. In this chapter we uncover the next three layers: These three layers can be thought of as focusing on the process of research design that is turning your research question into a research project Robson Your research question will subsequently inform your choice of research strategy your choices of collection techniques and analysis procedures and the time horizon over which you undertake your research project.

It will contain clear objectives derived from your research questions specify the sources from which you intend to collect data and consider the constraints that you will inevitably have for example access to data time location and money as well as discussing ethical issues.

It would be per- fectly legitimate for your assessor to ask you why you chose to conduct your research in a particular organisation why you chose the particular department why you chose to talk to one group of staff rather than another. You must have valid reasons for all your research design decisions. At this point we should make a clear distinction between design and tactics.

This analogy is particularly useful when thinking about your research project. The way in which you design your research will depend upon your own preferences your research philosophy and your ideas as to the most appropriate strategy and choices of methods for conducting your research. For small-scale research projects such as the one you are likely to do as part of your taught course the person who designs the research is nearly always the same as the person who undertakes the data collection data analysis and subsequently writes the project report.

Continuing with our analogy this can be likened to the architect and builder being the same person. It also emphasises the need for you to spend time on ensuring that you have a good research design in order to avoid what Robson This is essential because good research like a good building is attributed to its architect.

In thinking about her research project she was hoping to link this idea with marketing. Hannah wanted to explore the extent to which the service quality experience encouraged customers to use the bank branch.

She also felt that as the bank branch was still in existence there must be some positive experience or the customers would entirely migrate to other forms of distribution such as online banking with the result that branches would disappear entirely from the High Street.

Her initial research question asked: From her initial research question Hannah developed the following objectives: Having read the relevant research methods literature Hannah decided structured observations would be an appropriate starting point for her data collection.

The systematic and structured approach would enable her to be consistent about the data collected. She also felt she would take the role of a complete observer as this would allow her to observe customer behaviour in an unobtrusive way. She was unclear whether she was also adopting the role of observer as participant so made a diary note to discuss these concerns with her supervisor at their next meeting. Data from her observations would inform the second phase of her research in which she planned to use semi-structured interviews.

Hannah discussed her thoughts on the use of observation as part of a multi-method approach with Arafet her supervisor. Hannah was observing only customers and not staff. She understood her presence in the branch might have some effect on the staff but not on the customers as they were not conscious of being observed.

She argued the observations would give her an insightful and obvious way of observing what customers do in branches and that observing their behaviour would inform the contents of subsequent semi-structured interviews.

In particular she needed to know how much time the observation stage would consume and the appropriate number of observations in each branch. She decided to undertake six one-hour observations in six different branches in a variety of towns.

To avoid the complication of time error the observations would be carried out at the different times during the day. As part of this she was requested to bring a structure of the observations and full background details of her research. The meeting went well and Hannah discovered that the regional director was already promoting service quality in the branches using a variation of the SERVQUAL service quality measurement Parasuraman He requested that Hannah wrote a short report as feedback for him when her observations were complete.

It is therefore important that your covering letter states when the questionnaire is likely to be collected. As with postal questionnaires follow-ups can be used calling at a variety of times of day and on different days to try to catch the respon- dent.

Prior to the survey a pre-survey contact letter was sent to all parents using their children to deliver the letter. The questionnaire covering letter and postage-paid reply envelope were delivered in the same manner a week later. This represented 16 per cent of fam- ilies whose children attended the school. At the start of the next week a follow-up letter was delivered by hand to all parents.

This thanked those who had already responded and encour- aged those parents who had yet to return their completed questionnaire to do so. After this the rate at which questionnaires were returned increased.

By the end of the second week ques- tionnaires had been returned representing a 38 per cent response rate. However an additional 41 questionnaires were received after this deadline resulting in an overall response rate of 60 per cent.

The administration of the ques- tionnaire had taken over four weeks from the pre-survey contact letter to the receipt of the last completed questionnaire. Survey of school parents e delivered by hand Follow-up letter delivered by hand Last date for receipt Last questionnaire received Each day Total Number Chapter openers provide a clear and concise introduction to the topics to be covered together with a list of Learning Outcomes that you should have achieved by the end of the chapter.

Practical illustrations bring to life some of the issues and challenges you will encounter during your course and beyond.

These include short Worked Examples and longer Cases. Both of these valuable resources are accessible at www. From article by Simon Briscoe 2 November Graph adapted from 4a. Percentage component bar charts are more straightforward to draw than comparative pie charts when using most spreadsheets.

Within your percentage compo- nent bar chart comparisons will be easiest between adjacent bars. Deliberate distortion occurs when data are recorded inaccurately on purpose and is most common for secondary data sources such as organisational records. Managers may deliberately fail to record minor accidents to improve safety reports for their depart- ments. Data that have been collected to further a particular cause or the interests of a particular group are more likely to be suspect as the purpose of the study may be to reach a predetermined conclusion Jacob Reports of consumer satisfaction surveys may deliberately play down negative comments to make the service appear better to their target audience of senior managers and shareholders and graphs may deliberately be dis- torted to show an organisation in a more favourable light Box 8.

Research by Beattie and Jones used an experimental strategy to establish the level of measurement distortion that was noticeable to graph readers.

Each pair consisted of a graph with no distortion and a graph with either 5 10 20 30 40 or 50 per cent distortion. Scale values were omitted from these graphs and all were coloured blue. The graphs looked similar to the pair below in which graph Y shows a 20 per cent distortion of graph X: Employees keeping time diaries may record only the approximate time spent on their main duties rather than accounting precisely for every minute.

People responding to a structured interview questionnaire may adjust their responses to please the interviewer Section The use of these different strategies has implications for the procedures involved in the analysis of qualitative data. If your university subscribes to online newspapers such as ft. We suggest you use either lines or paragraphs and subsequently agree on a coding template.

They can be thought of as those that are predominantly rational thinking and those that involve more creative thinking Table 2. The precise techniques that you choose to use and the order in which you use them are entirely up to you.

However like Raimond we believe you should use both rational and creative techniques choosing those that you believe are going to be of most use to you and which you will enjoy using. By using one or more creative techniques you are more likely to ensure that your heart as well as your head is in your research project.

In our experience it is usually better to use a variety of techniques. There are no right or wrong answers. To guide your discussion you need to think about: These questions were developed with the help of Judith Thomas.

In writing the fourth edition of Research Methods for Business Students we have responded to the many comments we have received regarding previous editions. In particular this has led us to research and write two new chapters: In addition we have taken into account the increasing importance of the Internet as a means of accessing academic literature and research data sets. By doing this we have been able to focus on the general principles needed to utilise a range of analysis software and the Internet effectively for research.

Where appropriate these guides are provided with data sets. We have also taken the opportunity to revise the tables of Internet addresses fully. In addition we have taken the opportunity to further develop our dis- cussions regarding issues associated with the use of email Internet chat rooms and Internet and intranet-mediated questionnaires.

In the preparation of the fourth edition we were fortunate to receive considerable feed- back from colleagues in both UK and overseas universities. We are extremely grateful to all the reviewers who gave their time and shared their ideas. Particular responses to this feedback not outlined elsewhere have been the inclusion of sections on transcribing audio-recorded interviews discourse analysis and personal safety when undertaking research.

Inevitably the body of knowledge of research methods has developed since and we have revised the chapters accordingly. Our experiences of teaching and supervising students and working through the methods in classes have suggested alternative approaches and the need to provide additional material.

New case studies at the end of each chapter have been developed with col- leagues providing up-to-date scenarios through which to illustrate issues associated with undertaking research. However the basic structure remains much the same as the pre- vious three editions. Other minor changes and updating have been made throughout. Needless to say any errors of omission and commission are our responsibility.

As with previous editions much of our updating has been guided by comments from students and colleagues to whom we are most grateful. Colleagues in both our own and other universities have continued to provide helpful comments and advice.

The contributions of Lynette Bailey to Chapter 3 and of Andrew Guppy to Chapter 12 in earlier editions of this book are gratefully acknowledged. We would also like to thank all of the staff at Pearson Education both past and present who supported us through the process of writing the fourth edition.

Our thanks go in particular to Amanda McPartlin our commissioning editor for her excellent support and enthusiasm throughout the process and to Stuart Hay for coordinating the market research and for his innovative ideas. We would also like to express our thanks to Sarah Wild as desk editor and Annette Abel as copy editor as well as Janey Webb. Once again our thanks are due to Jane Jenny Jan Jemma Ben Andrew and Katie who still allow us the time to absent ourselves to think and write.

He currently teaches research methods to masters and doctoral students as well as supervising masters dissertations and research degrees. Mark has published a number of articles on research methods service quality and trust and organisational justice perspectives on the management of change. He is co-author with Phil and Adrian of Employee Relations: He teaches HRM and research methods to postgraduate undergraduate and professional students and is involved in research degree supervision.

He is co-author with Mark and Adrian of Employee Relations: He has undertaken consultancy in both public and private sectors. Prior to his career in higher education Phil was a training advisor with the Distributive Industry Training Board. He teaches HRM and research methods to postgraduate undergraduate and professional stu- dents and is involved in research degree supervision. Adrian has published a number of articles principally associated with employee and justice perspectives related to managing change and the management of organisational downsizing and redundancy.

He is co- author with Phil and Mark of Employee Relations: Martin Jenkins is Academic Manager of the Centre for Active Learning at the University of Gloucestershire with a special interest in information literacy. Reviewers We would like to express thanks to the reviewers who have been involved in the devel- opment of this book. We are grateful for their insight and helpful recommendations. Reproduced with permission Figure 3. Reproduced with permission of the Ashgate Publishing Company Box 8.

Financial Times Prentice Hall. Reprinted with permission of Pearson Education Ltd Figure Question layout screenshot from SurveyMonkey reproduced with permission Figures Reproduced with permission Figures From the Harley-Davidson Inc.

Developed from Raimond P. Design Research and Presentation London: Chapman and Hall p. Reproduced with permission of Thomson Publishing Services. Developed from Robson C. Reproduced with permission Table Reproduced with permission Science Photo Library Reproduced with permission of the publisher Box 5. Developed from Walker R. A Handbook for Teachers London: Reproduced with permission Box Reprinted by permis- sion Box Abridged abstract from Higgins M.

We are also grateful to the Financial Times Limited for permission to reprint the fol- lowing material: In some instances we have been unable to trace the owners of copyright material and we would appreciate any information that would enable us to do so.

It provides a clear guide on how to undertake research as well as highlighting the realities of undertaking research including the more common pitfalls.

The book is written as an introductory text to provide you with a guide to the research process and with the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake a piece of research from thinking of a research topic to writing your project report. After reading the book you will have been introduced to and explored a range of approaches strategies and methods with which you could tackle your research project.

Of equal importance you will know that there is no one best way for undertaking all research. This means you will be able to make an informed choice about the approaches strategies and methods that are most suitable to your own research project and be able to justify this choice. When selecting and using these techniques you will be aware of the contribution that the appropriate use of information technology can make to your research. However before you continue a word of caution.

In your study you will inevitably read a wide range of books and articles. In this book we have been more precise in our use of these terms. Throughout the book we use the term methods to refer to techniques and procedures used to obtain and analyse data. This therefore includes questionnaires observation and interviews as well as both quantitative statistical and qualitative non- statistical analysis techniques and as you have probably gathered from the title is the main focus of this book.

In contrast the term methodology refers to the theory of how research should be undertaken. In the s 3M research scientist Spence Silver was looking for ways to improve the adhe- sive used in tapes.

However he discovered something quite different from what he was looking for an adhesive that did not stick strongly when coated onto the back of tapes What was unclear was how it might be used. A new product development researcher working for 3M Art Fry was frustrated how the scraps of paper he used as bookmarks kept falling out of his church choir hymn book. Whilst your research project will be within the discipline business and management rather than natural science such as developing a new adhesive our introductory example still offers a number of insights into the nature of research and in particular the business and management research you will be undertaking.

It also emphasises the importance of dis- cussing your ideas with other people. For this reason we also discuss a range of philosophical assumptions upon which research can be based and the implications of these for the method or methods adopted.

The survey of more than students com- missioned by GTI the specialist graduates careers publisher found that most students were unwilling to look beyond large employers. GTI said 44 per cent of students complained that employers had either not bothered to reply to their applications or took weeks or even months to respond. Some 32 per cent of graduates had applied to more than 10 companies. Chris Phillips GTI publishing director said the way companies treated students risked damaging their reputation.

Some 71 per cent of students had gone on to tell others about their bad experiences. Another 60 per cent said they had been put off dealing with that employer in the future. As part of this he highlights ways in which the term is used wrongly: While collecting data may be part of the research process if it is not undertaken in a systematic way on its own and in particular with a clear purpose it will not be seen as research. The second of these is commonplace in many reports.

Data are collected perhaps from a variety of different sources and then assembled in a single document with the sources of these data listed. However there is no interpretation of the data collected. Again while the assembly of data from a variety of sources may be part of the process of research without interpretation it is not research.

In such instances when you ask for details of the research process these are either unclear or not forthcoming. Based upon this brief discussion we can already see that research has a number of characteristics: As part of this your research will involve an explanation of the methods used to collect the data will argue why the results obtained are meaningful and will explain any limitations that are associated with them.

Ongoing debate within the British Academy of Management has explored the status of management research. One feature which has gained considerable support is the transdisciplinary nature of such research. While this has similarities to Easterby-Smith et al.

In other words using knowledge from a range of disciplines enables management research to gain new insights that cannot be obtained through all of these disciplines separately. Another feature of management research highlighted in the debate is a belief that it should be able to develop ideas and to relate them to practice. This in turn becomes a blueprint for managerial practice thereby increasing the stock of relevant and practical management knowledge.

Thus business and management research needs to engage with both the world of theory and the world of practice. Consequently the problems addressed should grow out of interaction between these two worlds rather than either on their own.

In recent years debate about the nature of management research has focused on how it can meet the double hurdle of being both theoretically and methodologically rigorous while at the same time embracing the world of practice and being of practical relevance Hodgkinson et al.

Much of this debate has centred around Gibbons et al. Mode 1 knowledge creation emphasises research in which the questions are set and solved by academic interests emphasising a fundamental rather than applied nature where there is little if any focus on utilisation of the research by practitioners. In contrast Mode 2 emphasises a context for research governed by the world of practice highlighting the importance of collaboration both with and between practitioners Starkey and Madan and the need for the production of practical rel- evant knowledge.

Based upon this Starkey and Madan observe that research within the Mode 2 approach offers a way of bringing the supply side of knowledge rep- resented by universities together with the demand side represented by businesses and overcoming the double hurdle. However this would negate the observation that Mode 2 practices develop from Mode 1. This Huff and Huff argue could jeopardise future knowledge creation as research that is currently not valued commercially might have value in the future.

Building upon these ideas they highlight a further form of knowledge production: This emphasises the importance of broader issues of human relevance of research. For some research projects your purpose may be to understand and explain the impact of something such as a particular policy.

For other research projects you may wish to explore the ways in which various organisations do things differently. In such projects your purpose may be to discover and understand better the underlying processes in a wider context thereby providing greater understanding for practitioners. For yet other research projects you may wish to place an in-depth investigation of an organisation within the context of a wider understanding of the processes that are operating. Despite this variety we believe that all business and management research projects can be placed on a continuum Figure 1.

At one extreme of the continuum is research that is undertaken purely to understand the processes of business and management and their outcomes. Such research is undertaken largely in universities and largely as the result of an academic agenda. Its key consumer is the academic community with relatively little attention being given to its practical applications. This is often termed basic fundamental or pure research. Through doing this the research would start to move towards the other end of the continuum Figure 1.

At this end is research that is of direct and immediate relevance to managers addresses issues that they see as important andispresentedinwaysthattheyunderstandandcanacton.

Wherever your research project lies on this basic—applied continuum we believe that you should undertake your research with rigour. To do this you will need to pay careful attention to the entire research process. Using the dimensions of theoretical and methodological rigour and of practical relevance they identify four quadrants: Theoretical and methodological rigour Practical relevance Quadrant higher lower pedantic science lower higher popularist science lower lower puerile science higher higher pragmatic science Pedantic science they argue is characterised by a focus on increasing methodological rigour at the expense of results that are relevant and can sometimes be found in refereed aca- demic journals.

In contrast popularist science is characterised by a focus on relevance and usefulness whilst neglecting theoretical and methodological rigour examples being found in some books targeted at practising managers. Puerile science both lacks methodological rigour and is of limited practical relevance and although unlikely to be found in refereed academic journals can be found in other media.

Finally prag- matic science is both theoretically and methodologically rigorous and relevant. Inevitably your own beliefs and feelings will impact upon your research. Similarly as we discuss in Chapter 2 practical considerations such as access to data and the time and resources you have available will also impact upon your research process.

The precise number of stages varies but they usually include formulating and clarifying a topic reviewing the litera- ture designing the research collecting data analysing data and writing up. In the majority of these the research process although presented with rationalised examples is described as a series of stages through which you must pass.

Articles you have read may also suggest that the research process is rational and straightforward. Unfortunately this is very rarely true and the reality is considerably messier with what initially appear as great ideas sometimes having little or no relevance Saunders and Lewis While research is often depicted as moving through each of the stages outlined above one after the other this is unlikely to be the case.

In reality you will probably revisit each stage more than once. In addition as highlighted by some textbooks you will need to consider ethical and access issues during the process.

This textbook also presents the research process as a series of linked stages and gives the appearance of being organised in a linear manner. However as you use the book you will see from the text extensive use of cross-referencing examples of research by well- known researchers and how research is reported in the news worked examples and case studies that we have recognised the iterative nature of the process you will follow.

This we believe should be expressed as one or more research ques- tions that your research must answer accompanied by a set of objectives that your research must address.

Often this will involve revisiting stages including your research questions and objectives and working through them again. There is also a need to plan ahead thereby ensuring that the necessary preliminary work for later stages has been undertaken.

This is emphasised by Figure 1. This means that early on in your research project you will need to be clear about what you are doing why you are doing it and the associated implications of what you are seeking to do. You will also need to ensure that you can show how your ideas relate to research that has already been undertaken in your topic area and that you have a clear research design and have thought about how you will collect and analyse your data.

As part of this you will need to consider the validity and reliability of the data you intend to use along with associated ethical and access issues. The appropriateness and suitability of the analytical techniques you choose to use will be of equal import- ance. Finally you will need to write and present your research project report as clearly and precisely as possible.

The structure of each chapter Each of the subsequent chapters deals with part of the research process outlined in Figure 1. The ideas techniques and methods are discussed using as little jargon as is possible.

The application of appropriate information technology is con- sidered in most instances as an integral part of the text. These will enable you to utilise whatever software you have avail- able most effectively.

Included within the text of each chapter is a series of boxed worked examples. These are based on actual research projects undertaken by students in which points made in the text are illustrated. Quantitative methods Chapter 12 Formulate and clarify your research topic Chapter 2 Critically review the literature Chapter 3 Understand your philosophy and approach Chapter 4 Negotiate access and address ethical issues Chapter 6 Wish to do research Plan your data collection and collect the data using one or more of: Sampling Chapter 7 Secondary data Chapter 8 Observation Chapter 9 Semi- structured and in-depth interviews Chapter 10 Questionnaires Chapter 11 Qualitative methods Chapter 13 Write your project report and prepare your presentation Chapter 14 Submit your project report and give your presentation forward planning reflection and revision Formulate your research design Chapter 5 Figure 1.

Further illustrations are provided by focus on management research and research in the news boxes. Focus on management research boxes discuss recent research in business and management. These are normally derived from refereed academic journal articles and you are likely to be able to download the actual articles from online databases at your university.

Research in the news boxes provide topical newspaper articles that illustrate pertinent research-related issues. All these will help you to understand the technique or idea and to assess its suitability or appropriateness to your research. Where a pitfall has been illustrated it will it is hoped help you to avoid making the same mistake.

There are also a series of boxed checklists to provide you with further focused guidance for your own research. At the end of each chapter there is a summary of key points which you may look at before and after reading the chapter to ensure that you have digested the main points.

To enable you to check that you have understood the chapter a series of self-check ques- tions is included at the end. These can be answered without recourse to other external resources. Answers are provided to all these self-check questions at the end of each chapter.

Self-check questions are followed by review and discussion questions. These suggest a variety of activities you can undertake to help you further develop your knowledge and understanding of the material in the chapter often involving discussion with a friend. This contains a series of questions that will help you to consider the implica- tions of the material covered by the chapter for your research project.

They are designed to help you to focus on the techniques that are most appropriate to your research. However as emphasised by Figure 1. Using sampling as part of your research References Further reading Case 7: Assessing the suitability of secondary data for your research References Further reading Case 8: Deciding on the appropriateness of observation References Further reading Case 9: Collecting primary data using semi-structured, in-depth and group interviews Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill Learning outcomes Using semi-structured or in-depth interviews in your research References Further reading Case Using questionnaires in your research References Further reading Case Analysing your data quantitatively References Further reading Case Analysing your data qualitatively References Further reading Case The fifth edition has a new chapter on qualitative data analysis, featuring a case study of the research process.

The chapters on scientific investigation, the broad problem area and defining the problem statement, measurement of variables, experimental designs, sampling, and quantitative data analysis have all been substantially revised.

Additional real-life cases have been included and examples are taken from Europe, Asia and the US to give students a comprehensive view of modern business research methods. View Instructor Companion Site. Contact your Rep for all inquiries. View Student Companion Site. Request permission to reuse content from this site. Research Methods for Business:

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A complete introduction to business research, Business Research Methods is the ideal guide for students embarking on a research project. Throughout the text, the authors draw on their own extensive experience to give readers tips for success and provide advice to help them avoid common mistakes. The fourth edition of Research Methods for Business Students is a market-leading text which brings the theory philosophy and techniques of research to life and enables students to understand the practical relevance of the research methods.