Renaissance is another word for re-birth. That is what was happening to this country. The ports of Argos and Corinth, on the eastern side of the country, grew very fast and trade with the Near East began to grow.
Metals were traded with the Near East and Italy. Because things were going good and the population rose, we all know, having more people means needing more food to eat and more land to expand on.
This meant more explorers were needed to settle more areas and the expansion of Greece was underway. In the eighth century B. The tyrants were often related to the rich people. The success of the tyrants created a new rule. After about 1 to 3 generations that rule was overthrown. Between the eighth and the seventh century B. As these islands were discovered and settled, people did really well when they were able to start trading with the Asia to the east and Europe to the west.
In the sixth century B. The result of a disagreement between the east and the west was to shape the entire future of this area that we now know to be Greece. It was a question of survival for the Greeks. The first Persian war in B. Persia sent a small force by its standards of about 20, infantry and cavalry to punish Athens for its participation in a raid in Asia Minor. Greeks met this force with 10, troops at the plain of Marathon on the west coast of Attica. During the War, Greeks left the Persians routed.
The second Persian war lasted three years. The Greeks formed Hellenic League, which included Sparta and its allied states. Other Greek states went over and joined the Persian side. Then right after the Persian Wars, the Peloponnesian War started, because of the hostility toward Athens.
This war was between Athens and the Spartans. Greece collapsed and the Spartans won. A peace treaty was signed in B. Following the collapse of Athens, Sparta ruled Greece for only a short time because of poor leadership and social weakness. Phillip II and his son, Alexander, came to power. As Phillip was planning to invade Asia, he was assassinated in B. The task of invading Asia was left to his son.
After the death of Phillip, Alexander also became king and had simply invaded Asia. Then he captured Egypt and Mesopotamia in B. Before dying of a malarial fever at age 33, he conquered parts of India and all of Afghanistan. He had become a pharaoh and a great king in parts of his empire. Though being king for only 13 years, he changed the face of the world. The first Macedonian War between and B.
In the second Macedonian War, from to B. Phillip lost all of his territory outside of Macedonia and the commander, Flamininus, established a Roman protectorate over the Greek city-states. The futures of Greece and Rome were therefore intertwined for about the next years.
In the first two centuries A. Peninsular Greece was divided into two provinces, Macedonia, which included Thessaly, Epirus, and Macedonia and Achaia incorporating central and southern Greece. At the same time, life in Greek cities started using some Roman things in their day to day living. Christianity was being taught and learned. The third century A.
The western territory of the empire fell into the dark ages while the eastern territories remained as the Roman Empire or "Romania" for over a millennium. Even though Muslims invaded from the east and Slavs from the west, the main language spoken was still Greek and Christianity was dominant. During the time of the Macedonian Dynasty, there was a period of economic growth and prosperity and a cultural renaissance.
Woven silk and other craft items became major exports. Farming was a big part of this growing time period. In the next century, Greece became more like Europe. Such a statement suggests that women are subject to the will of their physical desires and cannot control them. It also shows that women are truly the weaker sex because they cannot control their bodily drives.
This is sharply contrasted to men, who are usually characterized in Greek culture as strong, reserved and in control. Lysistrata lamented this facet of women in Greece by arguing,. It's no wonder men write tragedies about us.
This marginalization of women in literature would continue throughout history and is particularly evident in the works of William Shakespeare. The play also clarified Greek culture and its gender norms by detailing how men used their physical power and violence to undermine women.
Even the brace Lysistrata acknowledged that men have an upper hand in this respect. When the other women asked what to do if their men beat them, she replied by lamenting that:. Such submission to male authority shows that violence and physical means of coercion were the norm. Women had no choice but to accept it and deal with the repercussions. Later in the play, there were also numerous instances where men threatened women with physical violence directly. For instance, when the Chorus reflected shared dialogue with women, a question posed was:.
This paints Greek culture in a light that undermines women and their freedoms. While it may be a broad generalization to assume that all men beat their wives, the play does show that society sees it as an acceptable means by which to deal with unruly women. With a life of dealing with children, cleaning and other familial tasks, gender roles were oriented towards men being the breadwinners while women were passive and submissive.
In Greek culture, women were burdened with:. This shows that Greek culture was conservative in terms of gender interaction. Moreover, instituting a sexual double standard where women wield sex as a means of persuasion, the play portrays women in a negative light.
Despite being limited to only bodily pleasure as a bargaining tool, evidence from the play shows that apprehension towards using this power stemmed from an inability to control sex drive. Clearly, women in Greece were depicted as weak, sexual creatures that were powerless to men despite the fact that they ultimately achieve their goal in the play.
Finally, the ubiquitous use of violence to deal with the women shows that this was an accepted facet of Greek gender relations. Women had to deal with violent means of coercion as an acceptable form of discourse.
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Links and information on Ancient Greece: history, mythology, art and architecture, olympics, wars, people, geography, etc. This essay focuses on the author Aristophanes' view of male and female gender roles in ancient Greece. Insightful literary interpretations are just one of the many features provided by Ultius.. Aristophanes’ Lysistrata as a representation of Greek gender roles Greek culture has long been cited as one related to sophistication, social progress, and intellect.5/5(1).
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