It does, however, offer an approach for the construction of new sorts of references beyond the various types it catalogues. That approach has been specifically illustrated in this blog already, by earlier postings about manufacturing reference entries for Twitter, Facebook, and Wikipedia. What is that approach? You just need to know the basic building blocks—namely, the generic elements that nearly all references in APA style contain—and then you can adapt them to your particular needs. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual lays the requirements out pretty bluntly.
Another way to think of these building blocks, a mnemonic to use in your own construction and review of references, is to remember four interrogatories: To be less cryptic and more lengthy, the quartet of queries can be expanded thus: Who created this reference? When was this reference created? What is this reference called? Where does this reference come from or, Where can my reader find this reference? The author component is pretty straightforward: On the rare occasion when no authorship is attributed and, per APA style, you revert to a title entry e.
In most cases, a year will suffice to answer this question. A few reference types require more: If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, such as Citation Machine, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources.
If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n. If using Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle.
Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In this citation style, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics.
If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone.
Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title.
Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. If you are using Citation Machine, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher.
It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Other common terms, such as Inc. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. A study on the role of computers in adult education.
Educational Research and Reviews , 11 9 , After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources.
They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations.
If using Citation Machine to develop your citation, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI. Citation Machine will properly cite your online sources for you. Click here for more information about the basics of APA.
Author Last name, First initial. Last name, First initial. The race between education and technology. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums.
Last name of chapter author, First initial. Last name of Editor Ed. The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. Your citations will automatically format properly for you. Author Last Name, First initial. Title of work [E-reader version]. The Brooklyn follies [Nook version].
Citation Machine formats your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Title of Periodical, Volume Issue , page range. The decline of war. International Studies Review, 15 3 , Science, , If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator will cite your sources automatically for you. Author's Last name, First initial. Year, Month Day Published. Title of Newspaper, page range. First passengers ride monster jet.
The Salt Lake Tribune, p. Year, Month Date Published. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. College athletes want cut of action. Title of Magazine, Volume Issue , page range. National Geographic Magazine , 6 , Year, Month, Date of blog post. Title of blog post [Blog post]. EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Writer Last Name, First initial. Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode].
City, State of original channel: Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. Executive producer , House of cards. Producer Last Name, First initial. Title of film [Motion picture]. The emperor strikes back [Motion picture]. It is highly recommended not to use personal unpublished interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation.
Here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview:. Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. Last Name, First initial.
Last name [Format of interview]. If you are planning on using Citation Machine, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Song title [Recorded by First initial. On Album Title [Medium]. Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file].
Our APA citation maker is free and easy to use. Retrieved from Name of database. Accession or Order No. The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations.
If using Citation Machine, there is a form for dissertations that will automatically cite this source type for you.
How to Cite a Thesis/Dissertation in APA Thesis – A document submitted to earn a degree at a university. Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.
Proper Bibliographic Reference Format: Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line. Use italics and "sentence-style" capitalization for dissertation / thesis titles. Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title.
APA citation format for a published MA thesis: Author. (year). Title in italics (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (Accession Order No. [number]) Kasai, A. (). Images of pain, images of pain relief: Multimodal expressive arts therapy and pain management (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. APA style guide - How to cite thesis/dissertation in your reference list. Cite your work in four easy steps! Thesis/Dissertation – APA Reference List Capitalization. The document title is in sentence case – Only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. Always capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon.
Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation / master’s thesis in parentheses after the title. Sabbagh, S. A. (). Investigating oral presentation skills and non-verbal communication techniques in UAE classrooms: A thesis in teaching English to speakers of other languages (master’s thesis). Sep 26, · How to Cite a Dissertation in APA. Three Methods: Citing Published Dissertations Citing Unpublished Dissertations Writing In-Text Citations Community Q&A. For many social sciences, you'll use the American Psychological Association (APA) style of citation%(2).